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austenite-flake graphite eutectic system

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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... cast iron directional solidification multidirectional solidification nucleation solidification liquid iron-carbon alloys austenite-flake graphite eutectic system austenite-spheroidal graphite eutectic system austenite-iron carbide eutectic system hypereutectic cast iron isothermal...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003106
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... flake size; interdendritic, random orientation; and interdendritic, preferred orientation Compacted Graphite (CG) Cast Iron Compacted graphite (CG) cast iron, also known as vermicular graphite cast iron, is characterized by graphite that is interconnected within eutectic cells as is the flake...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006316
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... is enriched with carbon. The growing dendrites interact with graphite precipitates. Flake graphite and austenite form units that grow cooperatively, with both phases in contact with the melt ( Ref 6 ). Next, the eutectic cells surround the austenitic dendrites and grow until the liquid phase is consumed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... of a higher undercooling degree, that is, in the temperatures below T mst , primary solidification and eutectic solidification can both take place completely or partially in the metastable system, with precipitation of primary cementite or ledeburite. Graphitization can also take place in the range...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0009206
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... of metastable solidification (Fe 3 C eutectic) Gray iron : Exhibits a gray fracture surface because fracture occurs along the graphite plates (flakes); it is the result of stable solidification (Gr eutectic) Classification by Graphite Shape With the advent of metallography, and as the body...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006334
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... solubility level in austenite (∼0.08%), phosphorus forms a very hard ternary eutectic. While manganese is a carbide promoter, it can combine with sulfur. The resultant manganese sulfides act as nuclei for lamellar graphite. In industrial processes, nucleation phenomena may sometimes override solubility...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... was 173.8 HV 1.0 , which is considerably higher than the standard ASTM A436 or A439 specimens. Also, the high-silicon modified specimen has a higher concentration of eutectic carbide agglomerates. Figure 7 shows the flake graphite microstructure of ASTM A439 type D-3 austenitic cast iron, also with flake...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... Fe-Fe 3 C or Fe-Gr system, cast iron can be defined as an iron-carbon alloy with more than 2% C. However, because silicon and other alloying elements considerably change the maximum solubility of carbon in austenite (γ) and in the eutectic, a more general definition of cast iron is that it is an iron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006342
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... of nonmounted specimens is more difficult, and the flake graphite in gray iron close to the edge of such a specimen is not polished perfectly, in comparison to well-polished graphite in the mounted specimen. Fig. 1 Spheroidal graphite in as-cast ductile iron (Fe-3.7%C-2.4%Si-0.59%Mn-0.025%P-0.01%S-0.095...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... Effect of superheat on the eutectic temperature of gray cast iron. Source: Esser and Lautenbusch as quoted in Ref 19 The Gray-to-White Transition The iron-carbon system contains two eutectic reactions, one stable and one metastable. The first one produces graphite and austenite; the other one...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003174
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... is that when the stable eutectic, graphite, forms on solidification, it expands rather than shrinks. This means that many iron castings can often be made with minimum use of risers. Fig. 1 Iron-carbon diagram, where solid curves represent the metastable system Fe-Fe 3 C and dashed curves represent...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... both the solidification and the matrix structures of these alloys. Over a range of appropriate composition and cooling rates, the solidification of molten iron will occur in the form of a eutectic cell consisting of interconnected graphite flakes and austenite. The graphite crystal is hexagonal in form...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... Abstract The solidification of hypoeutectic cast iron starts with the nucleation and growth of austenite dendrites, while that of hypereutectic iron starts with the crystallization of primary graphite in the stable system or cementite in the metastable system. This article begins...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... specimens to reveal some of the major microstructural constituents of ferrous materials. Even with primitive microscopes lacking illumination, Sorby observed various microstructural constituents such as graphite, cementite, pearlite, austenite, and phosphide eutectic. Subsequently, the introduction of more...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... continuous with the primary dendritic austenite, and the structure can be described as a dispersion of graphite flakes in austenite. After solidification, the eutectic cell structure and the primary austenite dendrites cannot be distinguished metallographically except by special etching, as done...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006327
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... show that changing the initial temperature of the metal in the mold cavity, for example, from 1250 to 1350 °C (2280 to 2460 °F), reduces the cooling rate by half. Solidification The solidification of ductile iron starts with the nucleation and growth of graphite and austenite for eutectic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... Velocity For the growth of equiaxed primary austenite dendrites and cooperative eutectic (e.g., lamellar graphite eutectic), one may use the already discussed Eq 12 and 17 , respectively. They have the same form but make use of different growth coefficients, depending on which phase is described...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
.... Influence of alloying elements on the stable and metastable eutectic temperatures in iron-carbon alloys Table 1 Influence of alloying elements on the stable and metastable eutectic temperatures in iron-carbon alloys Alloying element Change in eutectic temperature Austenite + graphite...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... of the machining allowance. The defect is illustrated in Fig. 11 , which clearly shows the thin layer of flake graphite adjacent to the mold. This is found mainly in green sand systems and is caused by a buildup of sulfur in the sand, which reacts with the magnesium in the iron to form magnesium sulfides...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... at the eutectic temperature. In gray cast iron, the carbon that exceeds the solubility in austenite precipitates as flake graphite. Gray irons usually contain 2.5 to 4% C, 1 to 3% Si, and additions of manganese, depending on the desired microstructure (as low as 0.1% Mn in ferritic gray irons and as high as 1.2...