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austenite dendrites

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
...Abstract Abstract The solidification of hypoeutectic cast iron starts with the nucleation and growth of austenite dendrites, while that of hypereutectic iron starts with the crystallization of primary graphite in the stable system or cementite in the metastable system. This article begins...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... precipitated from the liquid melt. The article describes the macrostructure and dendrite morphology of primary austenite. Eutectoid transformation in the solid state causes the transformation of austenite to pearlite and/or ferrite, producing the as-cast structure. The article discusses the observations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003725
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... similarly to interrupted solidification experiments. The typical dendritic structure of steel revealed by such a technique is presented in Fig. 1 ( Ref 1 ). The as-cast grain structure of steel can often be observed using classic metallographic etching because ferrite forms at the austenite grain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... and/or eutectic. For the case of the sparse dendritic structure (e.g., primary austenite), R is given by the position of the dendrite tips, and f i < 1. For the eutectic grains, f i = 1. Equation 3 shows that in order to predict f s , one must make use of models that relate n, R , and f i...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... phase can be either austenite for hypoeutectic cast iron or graphite for hypereutectic cast iron. Primary Austenite The formation and growth characteristics of austenite dendrites have received considerably less attention from investigators than eutectic cell count and morphology simply because...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006316
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
.... Solidification Solidification of thin-wall GCI castings occurs under conditions of high undercooling. The high cooling rate leads to nonequilibrium solidification. Primary austenite dendrites form in the molten iron with hypoeutectic and hypereutectic composition. In the case of thin-wall castings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... Fig. 4 Macrostructure of 30 mm (1.2 in.) diameter bars showing columnar grains (primary austenite dendrites). Source: Ref 9 Fig. 5 Room-temperature eutectic grain structure in lamellar graphite iron. Original magnification: 14×. Source: Ref 10 Fig. 6 Pearlitic gray iron...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of solidification. Fig. 2 Temperature versus fraction solid curves of three iron-carbon alloys: Fe-0.8wt%C, Fe-3wt%C, and Fe-4wt%C. These curves are obtained using a lever rule. For the Fe-3wt%C alloy, 58% of the solid forms as primary austenite dendrites in the temperature range between 1150 and 1300...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003729
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... model ( Ref 17 ), after reaching the nucleation or transformation temperature, the cells in the domain are allowed to change the value of their indexes. This is done according to the deterministic rules for equiaxed dendrite austenite grains and for equiaxed eutectic grains. The growth of the eutectic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., and normal sections. Fig. 9 25 mm (1.0 in.) type 304 stainless steel plate, shielded metal arc weld. Heat input: 1.0 MJ/m. Micrograph shows austenite-dendrite structure retained across successive weld passes in the fusion zone. Etchant: 10% oxalic acid electroetch. Magnification: 40× Fig. 10...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006327
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... and hypoeutectic irons, or with nucleation and growth of graphite for hypereutectic irons. The graphite spheroids are encapsulated into an austenite shell after nucleation in the liquid or after becoming attached to the austenite dendrites, as shown in Fig. 33 in the article “Microstructure Evolution during...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005217
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... to illustrate this analysis. According to the iron-carbon phase diagram, the liquidus temperature for this alloy is 1268 °C (2314 °F). At this temperature, dendritic crystals of austenite are formed. Because carbon has a very high diffusivity in austenite, the lever rule can be used to determine the fraction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006342
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
...) 20 g ammonium bifluoride (NH 4 F⋅HF) 0.5 g potassium metabisulfite (K 2 S 2 O 5 ) 100 mL hot distilled water Dissolve in given order. In austenitic Cr-Ni alloys, it tints austenite and reveals dendritic segregation. Ferrite and carbides remain unaffected. Wet-etch for 1–5 min immediately after...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... of solidification, in this case the formation of austenite dendrites, is positioned below the liquidus temperature in the phase diagram in Fig. 2 . The same is true for the eutectic temperature. The melt is undercooled with respect to the equilibrium temperature. The reason for this is a kinetic effect, which...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003174
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... with the formation of proeutectic austenite dendrites. These dendrites grow and new dendrites form as the temperature drops through the primary freezing range, between points 1 and 2. Dendrite size is governed by the carbon equivalent of the melt and the freezing rate (the faster the freezing rate and the higher...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005327
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... As-Cast Austenitic Solidification in the hypoeutectic alloys occurs by the formation of austenite dendrites followed by the eutectic formation of austenite and M 7 C 3 chromium carbides. Under equilibrium conditions, additional chromium carbide precipitates from the austenite matrix upon cooling...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... graphite particles as a primary phase (at least during the initial stages), together with austenite dendrites, known as divorced growth. Cast iron often exhibits intermediate microstructural forms, such as vermicular or chunky graphite. Fig. 13 Graphite in spheroidal cast iron, which results from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006330
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... of the solid sample; 3, the crucible is now entirely filled; 4, melt expansion and shrinkage; 5, formation of primary austenite dendrites; 6, start of the graphite and austenite eutectic precipitation; 7, solid-state transformation. Source: Ref 16 Problems Associated with Volume-Change Measurements...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
..., carbon equivalent. Source: Ref 11 At the casting skin, the predominant structure is austenite dendrites with little segregation, which, in some cases, transforms into pearlite upon cooling. Away from the skin, the austenite is coarser and allows for significant segregation at the end...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
..., interdendritic graphite type E. (b) Bottom of casting, low cooling rate, coarse lamellar graphite type A. Courtesy of Roxana Ruxanda, Emerson Climate Technologies Fig. 5 Ferrite surrounding interdendritic graphite in an austenite dendrites network. Iron composition: 3.42% C, 2% Si, 0.5% Mn, 0.037% P...