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attack-polishing solutions

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... attack by the plating solution on parts of the rack that are immersed in the solution, these parts are covered with nonconducting material such as water-resistant tape, special insulating lacquer, or plastisol coatings. Fig. 2 Racks used in hard chromium plating All soils and passive films...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... also discusses the mechanisms used for strengthening aluminum alloys, including solid-solution hardening, grain-size strengthening, work or strain hardening, and precipitation hardening. The process of precipitation hardening involves solution heat treatment, quenching, and subsequent aging of the as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006261
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... and can be used in the as-welded condition with only a low risk of intergranular attack. Older cast alloys with higher carbon and silicon contents, however, are more prone to grain-boundary precipitation during welding and generally require postweld annealing. Wrought alloys are produced from the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... or to facilitate polishing. Nickel is sensitive to intergranular attack from sulfur and metals such as lead, tin, zinc, and bismuth that have low melting points. Careful cleaning must be exercised to remove all traces of forming lubricants, marking paints, and shop soil prior to heating. Other...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... saline solutions, alkaline solutions, and organic chemicals. However, copper is susceptible to more rapid attack in oxidizing acids, oxidizing heavy-metal salts, sulfur, ammonia (NH 3 ), and some sulfur and NH 3 compounds. Resistance to acid solution depends mainly on the severity of oxidizing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... overpickling. This can be done conveniently by adding the proper weight of scrap iron to the bath when it is prepared. The nitric acid/hydrofluoric acid bath (Formula 3) must be used with care. Nickel-chromium and nickel-iron-chromium alloys are subject to intergranular attack in this solution if they have...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... such as oxalic acid occasionally are used with the acid salts when ferrous metal parts are being cleaned in rotating barrels. Oxalic acid attacks steel, but seldom to an objectionable degree. Thiourea is a good inhibitor, if inhibited oxalic acid solutions are required. The addition of fluoride salts...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... passive in nickel sulfate solutions. Although the tendency for passivity persists even in the presence of chlorides, the chloride ion attacks the passive oxide film that forms when current flows through the anode, and nickel can be dissolved through pits on the surface. The sulfur-containing materials do...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... such as grain boundaries, slip lines, scratches, and so forth. This study showed extensive attack at all of these sites. A “pitting-type” attack was identified as occurring at temperatures below 130 °C (266 °F) by coalescence of several nuclei into a single pit growing into the metal. At higher...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001274
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... coating chemicals, reacts with the metal to be coated, and at the interface, a thin film of solution is neutralized because of its attack on the metal. In the neutralized solution, solubility of the metal phosphates is reduced, and they precipitate from the solution as crystals. Crystals are then...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... treatments such as precipitation hardening, spinodal hardening, order hardening, and quench hardening and tempering. The article presents tables that list the compositions and mechanical properties of copper alloys. It also discusses two strengthening mechanisms of copper alloys, solid-solution strengthening...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... the surface has lost much of its original luster. The appearance and the degree of corrosive attack are related to RH. Relative humidity of up to approximately 70% has little influence on corrosion. Above 70%, corrosion activity may occur, because moisture precipitates on the surface, especially on...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... To reduce chemical attack in corrosive environments To stabilize and prevent distortion after machining and fabricating operations. This potential distortion could be a result of machining stresses, thermal stresses due to heat treatment, and stresses induced by straightening operations, even...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... candidates for electrolytic polishing. Electropolishing is usually reserved for single-phase alloys, because second phases and inclusions may be preferentially attacked during polishing. Chemical polishing involves simple immersion of a metal specimen into a suitable solution to obtain a metallographic...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... etched; use fresh H 2 O 2 for best results.) (b) Coppers and copper alloys. Film on etched aluminum bronze can be removed with weak Grard's solution. 1g Fe(NO 3 ) 3 100 mL water Add dropwise to the cloth during polishing with an abrasive, such as alumina. Attack polishing of coppers and copper...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...). Immerse or swab for up to 20 min. 12 2 g picric acid, 25g sodium hydroxide, 100 mL water Alkaline sodium picrate. Use boiling for 30 s or more to darken cementite. Solution will attack mounts made from Bakelite. 13 50 mL cold saturated aqueous sodium thiosulfate, 1 g potassium metabisulfite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... removing scale, pickling solutions that contain nitric acid will remove many surface contaminants through oxidation. However, because the acid solution attacks the base metal, it is necessary to limit the pickling time to prevent excessive metal loss or metal surface roughening. Parts made from alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... beryllium surface was uncontaminated and free of exposed Be 2 C inclusions ( Ref 1 ). Polished, uncoated specimen coupons were subjected to an atmosphere of air plus 95% relative humidity at 40 °C (100 °F) for 30 days, with a result of no apparent corrosive attack. Neither microscopic examination nor weight...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... Vapor degreasing effectively removes many soils from copper alloys. Stabilized trichloroethylene is used extensively in vapor degreasing because it does not attack copper alloys during degreasing and because it has high solvency for the oils, greases, waxes, tars, lubricants, and coolants in general use...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... general, a smooth, highly polished, reflective surface has greater resistance to corrosion. Rough surfaces are more likely to catch dust, salts, and moisture, which tend to initiate localized corrosive attack. Oil and grease can be removed by using hydrocarbon solvents or alkaline cleaners, but these...