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atomic number

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
.... atomic number chemical bonding organic compounds polymers protective coatings BY VIRTUE OF ALL OF THE MANY TYPES of resins, pigments, solvents, and other constituents comprising a formulated coating, chemistry is an important consideration in this Volume. All of the articles in the Coating...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... includes a series of tables: the first gives the names and symbols of the elements in alphabetical order and the second lists the elements in order by atomic number and give the atomic weight for each. The periodic table of the elements also is included in the article. actinides alkali metals...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... significance of the raw analytical total. Sections on accuracy of the standards-based k-ratio/matrix corrections protocol with EDS and processes of analysis when severe peak overlap occurs are also included. The article provides information on low-atomic-number elements, iterative qualitative-quantitative...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006653
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... lengths for absorption measurements to only a few millimeters. The measured absorbance is proportional to the number of absorbing species (i.e., gaseous atoms) within the optical viewing volume ( Ref 1 , 6 ). Therefore, the absorbance is related to both the path length of the incident light within...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... Fig. 20 A 2 × 2 μm atomic force microscopy image of an indium/tin oxide thin film deposited on a glass substrate. Nanometer-sized features are directly observed in this image. It should be noted that this material in optically transparent. With the advent of nanotechnology, a number of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... parameters for some of the simple metallic crystals. A table that lists the crystal structures of various metal elements is presented. The crystal structures are described by the Pearson symbols for crystal system, space lattice, total number of atoms per unit cell, and prototype structure. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... number of Burgers correspondence variants and orientation variants. The article also includes calculation of the transformation strain with contributions from defect structures developed at alpha/beta interfaces as a precipitates grow in size. In the CALculation of PHAse Diagram (CALPHAD) framework, the...
Book Chapter

By P.S. Grant
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... processes are the enormous amounts of solid remelting, compositional mixing, and equilibration that occur at and close to the preform top surface. Spray casting is an intrinsic or self-grain-refining casting process in which the purpose of the distinctive atomization step is to generate a large number...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... structure is referred to as an allotropy (existing in another form). For example, both iron and carbon have a number of allotropic forms. Carbon can exist as diamond, soot, graphite, and the more recently discovered form of fullerenes. However, the allotropy of carbon is not a significant variable as an...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005441
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... (33) × 10 −34 J · s Pianck constant/2π h ( bar ) 1.054571628 (53) × 10 −34 J · s Avogadro constant (number) N A 6.02214179 (30) × 10 23 mol −1 Atomic mass unit amu or u 1.660538782 (83) × 10 −27 kg Electron rest mass m e 9.10938215 (45) × 10 −31 kg Proton...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006628
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Z 1 is the atomic number of the projectile, Z 2 is the atomic number of the target atom, e is the unit electrical charge, a is the ZBL screening length, and a 0 is the first Bohr radius. The TFM potential is expressed as ( Ref 11 ): (Eq 5) V r = Z 1 Z 2 r e...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... letter to identify the crystal system and a capital letter to identify the space lattice. To these is added a number equal to the number of atoms in the unit cell conventionally selected for the particular crystal type. When determining the number of atoms in the unit cell, it should be remembered that...
Book Chapter

By S.L. Rohde
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001288
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... defined as the number of atoms ejected from the target surface per incident ion. The sputtering yield is dependent on the characteristics of the target material, incident ion energy, ion mass, and angle of incidence, as shown in Table 1 . Detailed studies of sputtering yields for a large variety of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006647
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., with an energy corresponding to the difference between the two energy levels. According to the laws of quantum mechanics, the electrons surrounding an atom can only attain a limited number of discrete energy levels. Therefore, each element is associated with a characteristic emission spectrum. This...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...) Random solid solution: All planes have equal numbers of A and B atoms, hence equal average scattering power, scattered beams from planes I and II are 180° out of phase and equal in amplitude, so net diffracted intensity is zero. (b) Ordered compound: Adjacent planes are made up entirely of A and B atoms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... structure and composition of materials is due to the differential absorption of x-rays by materials of different density, composition, and homogeneity. The higher the atomic number of a material, the more x-rays are absorbed. Microstructural analysis is the combined characterization of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... an atomic number of lithium and higher, chemical state identification of surface elements, composition and chemical state depth profiles with ion gun sputtering, determination of oxidation states of metal atoms in metal compounds, identification of surface contaminations, measurement of surface film...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... randomly arranged and the entropy of mixing is given by Eq 28 . In such a solution it can also be shown that: (Eq 38) P A B = N a z X A A X B B where N a is Avogadro's number, and z is the number of bonds per atom. If ε < 0, the atoms in the solution will...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... Abstract The process of transferring coating materials from the container to the surface to be coated can be accomplished in a number of ways. This article describes seven methods of coating application: brushes, rollers, and daubers; conventional air spray; high-volume low-pressure spray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... energy of the emitted Auger electron is characteristic of the element from which it was emitted. Because the Auger process is a three-electron process, only elements with an atomic number equal to or greater than three (lithium) can be analyzed using this technique. Detection and energy analysis of the...