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atomic coordination

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... Abstract This article focuses on the relationships among material properties and material structure. It summarizes the fundamental characteristics of metals, ceramics, and polymers. The article provides information on crystal structure, atomic coordination, and crystalline defects. It discusses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article focuses on laboratory atomic force microscopes (AFMs) used in ambient air and liquid environments. It begins with a discussion on the origin of AFM and development trends occurring in AFM. This is followed by a section on the general principles of AFM and a comprehensive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005542
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... materials are included. The article also lists the formulas for effective stress, strain, and strain rate (isotropic material) in arbitrary and principal coordinates; dimensionless groups in fluid mechanics; and anisotropic sheet materials at various loading conditions. bending casting compression...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... required creep-rupture properties based on insufficient data. Methods for evaluation of remaining creep-rupture life, including parametric modeling, isostress testing, accelerated creep testing, evaluation by the Monkman-Grant coordinates, and the Materials Properties Council (MPC) Omega method, are also...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... Abstract This article defines crystallographic terms and concepts, including crystal structure, unit cell, structure symbols, lattice, space-group notation, and atom position. It schematically illustrates the atom positions, prototypes, structure symbols, space-group notations, and lattice...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006068
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... Abstract This article provides information on the process details that differ from general water atomization of metals as they relate to basic and engineering properties that are specific to stainless steel powders. The discussion focuses on the compacting-grade stainless steel powders. The...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Abstract Field ion microscopy (FIM) can be used to study the three-dimensional structure of materials, such as metals and semiconductors, because successive atom layers can be ionized and removed from the surface by field evaporation. The ions removed from the surface by field evaporation can...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003722
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... concepts and illustrates various crystal structures. The crystallographic terms described include crystal structure, unit cell, crystal system, lattice, structure symbols, space-group notation, structure prototype, atom positions, point groups, and equivalent positions. The article presents a table of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., while the atoms themselves are shown close to their true effective size by spheres or portions of spheres at the right of each pair. Each atom arrangement shown in Fig. 4 (and all other arrangements) is characterized by efficient atom packing and a high coordination number, which is the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006505
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... of allotropes have proven to be false. The coordination number of aluminum is 12, with four atoms to the unit cell. The accepted edge length of the unit lattice cube for pure aluminum is 4.049 596 × 10 –10 m at 298 K. Hence, the atomic diameter of aluminum is 2.86 × 10 –10 m and its atomic volume...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... into molecules, the molecular structure is an added benefit. Once the atoms are located, interatomic bond distances and angles can be calculated, coordination numbers and geometries determined, and unusual interatomic or intermolecular contacts observed. Crystal structures may be determined simply to...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
...-silicon-oxygen bond angles. Thus, the RDF provides information on bond distances and angles and the number of atoms in various coordination spheres. Fig. 1 The radial distribution function, r 2 G ( r ), for silica glass with the first three peaks reintroduced without associated termination...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... how single-crystal x-ray diffraction is used to characterize the crystal structure, including determining symmetry, unit cell parameters, atomic coordinates and thermal displacement parameters, bond lengths and angles between the atoms, and structural motive (or topology). The article “X-Ray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... specimen and by the effective lateral extents of the position-sensitive detector rather than a small aperture in the microchannel plate and phosphor screen assembly used to view the field ion image that is used in the original atom probe. In the 3DAP, the x and y coordinates of each atom field...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Modeling of structure formation in casting of alloys involves several length scales, ranging from the atomic level to macroscopic scale. Intermediate length scales are used to define the microstructure of the growing phases and the grain structure. This article discusses the principles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... materials is well known and produces structural and compositional changes in a glass phase ( Ref 48 ). The coordination number (CN) and short-range order (SRO) of amorphous solid metals and even liquid metals are often dictated by the CN of the majority (host) atom in the crystalline state ( Ref 1 ). For...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005208
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article begins with balance equations for mass, momentum, energy, and solute and the necessary boundary conditions for solving problems of interest in casting and solidification. The transport phenomena cover a vast range of length and time scales, from atomic dimensions up to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Gibbs free energies and atomic mobilities are established as functions of temperature, pressure, and composition and serve directly as key inputs of any microstructure modeling. The article presents examples of the integrated computation tool set in simulating microstructural evolution. Burgers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003710
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... techniques, namely, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and atomic force microscopy, are reviewed. The article discusses the principles and applications of chemical identity and composition analysis techniques. These techniques include the energy dispersive X-ray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... nanotechnology and the development of smart coatings have been dependent largely on the availability of analytical and imaging techniques such as Raman spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. ball milling chemical vapor...