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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... Abstract This article defines crystallographic terms and concepts, including crystal structure, unit cell, structure symbols, lattice, space-group notation, and atom position. It schematically illustrates the atom positions, prototypes, structure symbols, space-group notations, and lattice...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article focuses on laboratory atomic force microscopes (AFMs) used in ambient air and liquid environments. It begins with a discussion on the origin of AFM and development trends occurring in AFM. This is followed by a section on the general principles of AFM and a comprehensive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005931
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... nitrogen are all popular partial pressure gases. The selection of the appropriate gas depends on the alloy being treated. For example, nitrogen may react with some stainless steels, causing an undesired nitriding effect. Argon is typically preferred because the atomic structure helps to reduce the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... a verb meaning to seek, search after, or inquire about.) In modern science, a metal is any element that tends to lose electrons from the outer shells of its atoms, with the resulting positive ions held together in a unique crystal structure by the cloud of these free electrons in a mechanism that...
Book Chapter

By P.S. Grant
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Spray casting, also known as spray forming, is a niche casting process for the manufacture of preforms. This article lists commercial examples of alloys manufactured by spray casting and provides sequential steps of the spray casting process. Gas atomization is a chaotic, stochastic...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...; (13) cubic, body centered; (14) cubic, face centered Fig. 4 Unit cells and atom positions for some simple metal crystals. Also listed are the space lattice and crystal system, space-group notation, and prototype for each crystal. The lattice parameters reported are for the prototype crystal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006647
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... atom and its concentration (Ref 10). Each atom is comprised of a nucleus surrounded by electrons. The nucleus is composed of protons (positive charge) and neutrons (neutral charge) and for neutral atoms, the total charge of the surrounding electrons (negative charge) is equal to the nucleus charge...
Book Chapter

By S.L. Rohde
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001288
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... position among the competing deposition techniques. The environmentally friendly nature of sputtering processes should also make them increasingly attractive in the future. SPUTTERING is a nonthermal vaporization process in which surface atoms are physically ejected from a surface by momentum transfer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005412
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... the other. This makes six parameters. Now, cut the system with a plane, and allow only atoms of one phase on each side of the plane. The orientation of the interface plane is defined by two parameters and its position by one parameter. At this point, nine parameters define the interface. Now, allow...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0006544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... crystal structure oxidation unit cell lattice dimensions metal crystals Pearson symbol space-group notation METALLIC MATERIALS normally have atoms or molecules placed in a definite, repeating, three-dimensional geometric pattern forming one of seven crystal structures recognized in...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... located at or near a specific ratio of component elements that reflects the normal positioning of the component atoms in the crystal structure of the phase, it is often called a compound (or line compound ). When the components of the system are metallic, such an intermediate phase is often called an...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... a sum of the atomic scattering factors from all the atom positions in the unit cell: Fig. 19 Illustration of relationship between direct and diffracted beams at an ( hkl ) plane of a crystalline structure (Eq 6) F θ = ∑ j f j exp 2 π i hx j + ky j...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... diffraction (see the article “Crystallographic Analysis by Electron Backscatter Diffraction in the Scanning Electron Microscope” in this Volume). Electron diffraction is usually used for symmetry determination and raw determination of unit cell parameters and atomic positions; however, recent techniques can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... atom in an excited state has one or more electrons in a higher-energy shell. Simplistically, atoms, when they combine, are held together by the electrostatic attraction between the positively charged protons of one reacting atom and the negatively charged electrons of the second reacting atom...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... ambient gas atoms, resulting in an energetic 200 eV neutral N 0 , which continues in the direction of the substrate, and a 0.03 eV N + charged atom that gets expelled from the positive column of charge represented by the ion beam. As a result of charge exchange, the neutralized (high-velocity) atoms will...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Gibbs free energies and atomic mobilities are established as functions of temperature, pressure, and composition and serve directly as key inputs of any microstructure modeling. The article presents examples of the integrated computation tool set in simulating microstructural evolution. Burgers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006651
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... inside the concentric channels of the torch, while the RF load coil creates an oscillating electric and magnetic field. A spark from the ignitor ionizes argon atoms by removing an electron from the outer orbital of an argon atom, creating positively charged argon ions and electrons, which begin to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
.... Furthermore, the chemical environment of the atoms (e.g., oxidation states) leads to slight shifts in the energy of the photoelectrons. The area under a peak in the spectrum is a measure of the relative amount of the element represented by that peak. The peak shape and precise position indicates the chemical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005430
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... site In a crystal, lattice vibrations cause atoms to oscillate around equilibrium positions with frequencies, ν 0 (∼10 12 to 10 13 Hz); however, occasionally the oscillations are large enough to allow an atom to jump to a different lattice site, resulting in diffusion of the...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Modeling of structure formation in casting of alloys involves several length scales, ranging from the atomic level to macroscopic scale. Intermediate length scales are used to define the microstructure of the growing phases and the grain structure. This article discusses the principles...