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atmospheric exposure

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... service environments. For atmospheric and marine exposure tests, there are international standards to be observed ( Ref 12 ). The major field exposure tests of thermal spray coatings conducted around the world are summarized in Fig. 6 . Small test panels have been used for selection of coatings, but...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... consistent durability in all types of atmospheric exposure, including industrial, rural, and marine. The article tabulates the corrosion of lead in various natural outdoor atmospheres and the corrosion of lead alloys in various soils. It explains the factors that influence in initiating or accelerating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005955
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract Vacuum heat treating consists of thermally treating metals and alloys in cylindrical steel chambers that have been pumped down to less than normal atmospheric pressure. This article provides a detailed account of the operations and designs of vacuum furnaces, discussing their pressure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract This article provides a detailed discussion on the types of furnace atmospheres required for heat treating. These include generated exothermic-based atmospheres, generated endothermic-based atmospheres, generated exothermic-endothermic-based atmospheres, generated dissociated-ammonia...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... steels by two methods such as short-term exposure tests and calculation of a corrosion index based on the steel composition. The article highlights some generalities about corrosion mechanisms. Based on the mechanism of atmospheric corrosion resistance of weathering steel, working rules for creating the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... the results of a research program that compared the corrosion resistance of nine cast steels in marine and industrial atmospheres. It illustrates the comparison of corrosion rates of cast steels, malleable cast iron, and wrought steel after 3 years of exposure in two atmospheres and provides the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract This article reviews general corrosion of uranium and its alloys under atmospheric and aqueous exposure as well as with gaseous environments. It describes the dependence of uranium and uranium alloy corrosion on microstructure, alloying, solution chemistry, and temperature as well as...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... fundamentals of tensile testing of fiber-reinforced composites, this article describes environmental exposures that can occur during specimen preparation and testing. These include exposures during specimen preparation, and planned exposure such as moisture, damage (impact), and thermal cycling. The article...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... 1 4 by 3 by 0.004 to 0.006 in.), is weighed before and after 1 h of exposure to the furnace atmosphere. The gain in weight, as determined on an analytical balance, is used to calculate the carbon potential of the atmosphere as follows: Carbon potential =  ( Gain in weight  ×  100...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... Abstract Independent verification of coating system performance can be based on laboratory testing and/or field exposure. Qualification testing is a critical component to coating system selection. This article focuses on performance evaluations that are used to prequalify coating systems...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract Heat treating involves the use of fuel gases for heating and gases in the furnace atmosphere. This article describes the hazards associated with furnace atmospheres and the related safety considerations. It discusses the effect of fuel on combustion efficiency. The article also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... and work hardening. Finally, the article provides information on the equipment used for the heat treating of copper and copper alloys, including batch-type atmosphere furnaces, continuous atmosphere furnaces, and salt baths. annealing bronzes cold forming copper copper alloys dispersion...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... addition to the growth of oxide films and dross on the melt surfaces that are induced by exposure to general atmospheric conditions, there are a number of factors encountered in industrial melters that can supplement and even alter the growth factors. These include turbulence induced by the mode of melting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... prevent exposures to atmospheric hazards that can become life threatening. The routes by which workers may be exposed (inhalation, dermal, ingestion) should also be determined. During coating application, exposure can occur via inhalation of mists (which can contain nonvolatile ingredients, such as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract Tantalum is one of the most versatile corrosion-resistant metals known. The outstanding corrosion resistance and inertness of tantalum are attributed to a very thin, impervious, protective oxide film that forms on exposure of the metal to slightly anodic or oxidizing conditions. This...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003120
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... methods. The article also describes the properties, microstructure, and thermal exposure of superalloys. It further discusses the effects of environmental factors on superalloys, including oxidation and hot corrosion. Protective coatings are also discussed. The article provides information on the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Film radiography requires the development of the exposed film so that the latent image becomes visible for viewing. It describes the general characteristics of film, including speed, gradient, and graininess, and the factors affecting film selection and exposure time. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... atmospheric-corrosion rate of aluminum coating (type I or type II) is equivalent to only 10 to 40% of the corrosion rate of zinc coating, depending on the type of atmosphere. Fig. 6 Predictive equations for type I aluminized steel, based on 5 years of exposure Fig. 7 Predictive equations for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... corrosion rate in soil is expressed as: (Eq 2) W = a t m where W is either the average mass loss or maximum pit depth, t is time of exposure, and a and m are constants that depend on the specific soil corrosion situation. Equation 2 is of the same form as Eq 1 for atmospheric...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... affect its corrosion resistance significantly, for example, by producing a dark patina during atmospheric exposure. Modern pewter can be chemically treated to reproduce this patina. Several proprietary processes are available, including those based on immersion in iron chloride (FeCl 3 ) or sodium...