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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001354
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... mechanisms, and process variables of the GMAW process. The process variables include welding current, polarity, arc voltage, travel speed, electrode extension, electrode orientation, and electrode diameter. The major components of the basic equipment for a typical GMAW installation are discussed. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005664
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... Abstract This article provides the basic physics of the two most widely used arc welding processes: gas tungsten arc welding and gas metal arc welding. It describes the various control parameters of these processes such as arc length control, voltage control, heat input control, and metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... more thorough discussion of the electrode regions of the arc and the arc column. The cathode and anode are similar in several respects. Both exhibit a voltage drop caused by a space charge that covers a very thin region over their surfaces, and the arc is significantly contracted on the surfaces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... porosity slag entrapment solidification cracking submerged arc welding weld current weld voltage SUBMERGED ARC WELDING (SAW) is an arc welding process in which the arc is concealed by a blanket of granular and fusible flux ( Ref 1 , 2 , 3 ). Heat for SAW is generated by an arc between a bare...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... input voltage, three-phase input machines, inverter-based power sources, short arc gas metal arc welding power sources, and multiple arc power sources are discussed. The article also presents the factors to be considered when selecting a power source. arc welding inverter-based power sources...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... operation of the process. Welding procedures emphasize control of parameters such as electrode wire-feed speed (or current), arc voltage, welding travel speed, contact tip-to-workpiece distance, as well as welding current pulse parameters (peak and background current, and peak and background time, Fig. 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... varied. This automatic arc length regulation is one reason semiautomatic GMAW generally requires lower skill as compared with SMAW or GTAW. Automatic arc length regulation is most commonly achieved through control of the welding current (amperage) to maintain a constant voltage. Arc voltage is directly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
...-circuit voltage should be higher than the required arc voltage to allow for voltage drop in the circuit. Because the arc voltage typically ranges from a low of 35 to a high of 56 V, the open-circuit voltage should be at least 60 V. The actual arc voltage used in the process is governed by arc length and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
.... , Microprocessor-Based Arc Voltage Control for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Using Gain Scheduling , IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. , Vol 29 ( No. 2 ), March–April 1993 , p 250 – 255 10.1109/28.216528 117. Koseeyaporn P. , Cook G.E. , and Strauss A.M. , Adaptive Voltage Control in Fusion Arc...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005598
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... component of the system. The power source for the GMAW component can be used as a constant-voltage or a constant-current rectifier. Power sources have welding currents that typically range from 40 to 200 A for the plasma arc and from 60 to 300 A for the GMAW element at 100% duty cycle. However, equipment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001356
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... characteristics in that an arc can be started and maintained at a lower voltage. Ceriated tungsten (EWCe-2) is only slightly better than the thoriated tungsten with respect to arc starting and melt-off rate. Any of the aforementioned electrodes produce acceptable welds. The easy starting of the lanthaniated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006515
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... ( Fig. 16 ). The contact tip (also called a contact tube) creates an electrical contact to apply a voltage to the wire from the welding power source. Current flow causes a high-temperature electric arc to be established between the wire and the workpiece, which melts the wire as it is continuously fed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... predominant type of power used for single-arc SAW. The dc power may be of a constant voltage or variable voltage (also known as constant current) type. In the past, both types have been supplied by motor generator or transformer rectifier-type welders. More recently, inverter power sources have been designed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005622
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... maximum penetration during welding. Arc length is a critical variable in the repeatability of welds made with the penetration-enhanced GTAW products; hence, the use of arc voltage control and mechanized equipment is well recommended. Penetrating compounds for GTAW are commercially available in kit form...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
..., air quality, line voltage fluctuations, and operator experience may also affect system performance. Fig. 2 Comparison of oxyfuel gas cutting and PAC of plain carbon steel Table 1 Comparison of oxyfuel gas and PAC processes   Oxyfuel Plasma arc Flame temperature 3040 °C...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005590
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
..., helium, or a mixture of these two. The heat developed in the arc is the product of the arc current times the arc voltage, where approximately 70% of the heat is generated at the positive terminal (anode) of the arc. Arc current is carried primarily by electrons ( Fig. 8 ) that are emitted by the heated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... laser beam (spot size typically 0.2 to 1 mm, or 0.008 to 0.39 in.) The variables for GMAW, as discussed in the article “Gas Metal Arc Welding” in this Volume, include: Arc current, voltage, and polarity Wire feed speed Electrode diameter and composition Electrode extension (contact...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... the electrode diameter is appropriate for the application. Second, the open-circuit voltage is adjusted to give either an acceptable arc length or electrode extension. The objective is to prevent either burnback (transfer of the arc to the contact tube) or spatter caused by shorting of the molten...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... controls the arc voltage and travel speed and, indirectly, the welding current. Second, meter readings are rarely used in the SMAW process for the duplication of jobs. It is generally considered that the recommended welding current ranges given in Table 4 for the different types of electrodes are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... machine, or power source, is the crux of the SMAW process. Its primary purpose is to provide electrical power of the proper current and voltage to maintain a controllable and stable welding arc. Its output characteristics must be of the constant current (CC) type. SMAW electrodes operate within the range...