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arbitrarily-shaped cracks

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... case, where ductile fracture by microvoid coalescence becomes the dominant fracture mode. In fact, sensitivity of the case microstructures to IG fracture makes possible the quantitative characterization of the size and shape of the stable fatigue crack, as shown in Fig. 8 . The transition from the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... or wedge-shaped cracks at grain triple points • Reaction scales or internal precipitation • Some cold flow in last stages of failure Contributing factors • Load exceeded the strength of the part • Check for proper alloy and processing by hardness check or destructive testing, chemical analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Abstract This article describes some of the mechanical/ electrochemical phenomena related to the in vivo degradation of metals used for biomedical applications. It discusses the properties and failure of these materials as they relate to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) and corrosion fatigue (CF...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... chevrons or radial marks near the fibrous zone depends in part on whether the crack-growth velocity at the surface is greater or less than that below the surface. If crack-growth velocity is at a maximum at the surface, radial marks have a fan-shaped appearance ( Fig. 42 ). If crack-growth rate is greatest...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... current density determination by Tafel extrapolation, potentiodynamic measurement of the polarization resistance, electrochemical impedance measurement, and potentiostatic deaeration. Tests combining corrosion and mechanical forces, such as fretting corrosion tests, environment-assisted cracking tests...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.9781627081764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... can have a significant impact on the location and shape of the final POD curve. These include the effect of crack closure, crack morphology, and crack location relative to other geometry that can affect the ability to detect the crack. Similar qualifiers exist for all NDE-based methods and must be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.9781627081948
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009022
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., arbitrarily established at 0.130 in., was heavy enough to provide the necessary strength. However, all castings produced were defective because of cold shuts and shrinkage. The draft angle on the pattern was then increased from one degree to three degrees, and 0.125 in. was added to all wall thicknesses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... perpendicularly into the surface. To detect a perpendicular planar discontinuity, such as an internal crack or seam, the microwave beam can be introduced into the material at an oblique angle, similar to ultrasonic shear-wave inspection of welds. When oblique incidence techniques are used, the polarization...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... inspection and on the shape of the part being inspected. In inspection for flaws, such as cracks and seams, it is essential that the flow of the eddy currents be as nearly perpendicular to the flaws as possible to obtain a maximum response from the flaws. If the eddy-current flow is parallel to flaws, there...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.9781627081979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006443
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... failure is imminent. Otherwise, crack growth laws of the form da / dN = A(Δ K ) m (where N is the number of stress excursions, and A and m are constants) can be used to estimate the safe life available before catastrophic failure. Fig. 18 Methodology of lifetime prediction for metal parts...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003988
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... Preform 1 overcomes the mentioned problems. This preform shape produced defect-free parts, while the mentioned cracking occurred when forging the other three preform shapes ( Ref 28 ). Preforms may be forged directly from the sintering furnace; sintered, reheated and forged; or sintered after the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006450
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... permeability, grain size, heat treatment condition, hardness, and physical dimensions Detect seams, laps, cracks, voids, and inclusions Sort dissimilar metals and detect differences in their composition, microstructure, and other properties Measure the thickness of a nonconductive coating on a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.9781627081863
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... radiography of a testpiece is a major factor that controls the ability to detect certain types of flaws. In some circumstances, although flaws are detected, the selected view presents an unsatisfactory or distorted picture of the relationship of the flaws to testpiece shape. For example, a crack in the fillet...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... FORGING OF STEELS in quantity has an extensive history since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Justification for selecting forging in preference to other, sometimes more economical, methods of producing useful shapes is based on several considerations. Mechanical properties in wrought materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.9781627081719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
..., gaseous magnesium; therefore, at this point the phase rule becomes: F = C + 2 − P F = 1 + 2 − 1 = 2 That is, are are two degrees of freedom. If both the pressure and temperature in a unary system are freely and arbitrarily selected, the situation corresponds to having two...