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application of specific-gas detectors

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... application of specific-gas detectors bubble testing leak testing mass spectrometers real leaks sulfur hexafluoride detectors virtual leaks LEAK TESTING is used to determine the rate at which a liquid or gas penetrates from inside a “tight” component or assembly to the outside, or vice versa...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
.... The color scales can be set up as a rainbow of colors, as hues of a particular color, or as a hot body spectrum. Types of CT Systems and Applications Several types of CT systems exist, suitably designed according to their specific applications, which can be divided into three main areas: clinical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001749
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... of Radioactivity Charged-Particle Detectors Alpha- and β-particles create tracks of ion pairs when they are absorbed in any material. When produced in an easily ionized gas, an ion-pair track creates an electrical pulse that can be detected when the gas is contained in a chamber fitted with an electrode...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... to the first stress invariant (sum of principal stresses) on the surface of the part. This effect is noticed most readily in gases, where compression of a gas will cause a temperature increase and expansion of a gas will cause a temperature decrease. The same effect is true with solids, except...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006659
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... body will lose heat at a rate depending on the composition of the surrounding gas. For a hot wire-based detector, the flow of carrier gas (typically helium or hydrogen) through the wires (across the filament) removes heat at a specific rate, depending on the thermal conductivity of the reference gas...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Applications Endothermic atmospheres can be used in virtually all furnace processes that operate about 760 °C (1400 °F) and require strong reducing conditions. The most common use is as carrier gases in gas carburizing and carbonitriding applications. Exothermic-Base Atmospheres Exothermic gases...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005853
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
.... For heating applications that are very dirty, instead of using a window, an air purge is used to force the dirt away from the lens. If air is not allowed in the process, an inert gas such as nitrogen or argon is used as the purging material. These gases are transparent to IR thermometers even if they are hot...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006664
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., the article highlights the state of the art in the MS detector technology. gas chromatography/mass spectrometry Overview MASS SPECTROMETRY (MS) is a technique that is used to analyze molecular mass and molecular structure for qualitative compound identification and/or quantitative analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... conductivity detectors monitor the thermal conductivity of the carrier gas. As the evolved gases pass the detector, changes in the thermal conductivity correspond to a change in the gas (e.g., from the inert carrier gas to hydrogen) and the amount of evolved gas present. These changes correspond to the amount...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... in a flame and the number of ions measured. Other detectors used in gas chromatography include the thermal conductivity detector, in which heat-conducting properties or the specific heat changes are measured, and the electron capture detector, in which compounds with a high electron affinity change...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... blocks Sintered powder metal, drive line Sintered powder metal gears and clutch plates Cast titanium, turbine Cast gas turbine blades Forged and machined steel, transmission Machined forged steel transmission gears and shafts Ceramic, engine sensor Ceramic oxygen sensors Silicon...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006663
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract Gas analysis by mass spectrometry, or gas mass spectrometry, is a general technique using a family of instrumentation that creates a charged ion from a gas phase chemical species and measures the mass-to-charge ratio. This article covers gas analysis applications that do not use...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
..., on the element to be detected. For carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen detection, bulk chemical analysis can be obtained using high-temperature combustion and inert gas fusion. Provided great care is taken in sample preparation, resolution in the ppm range can be achieved. Because of the small scale...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in the SEM chamber. However, the greater gas pressure in the chamber also causes scattering of the electron beam prior to striking the sample surface. Thus, in the variable-pressure mode, the area of beam interaction can be much larger than expected for high-vacuum conditions, as shown by the Monte Carlo...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005928
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Industrial gases used for heat treating applications are typically set up with flow meters that provide an indication of the amount of gas flowing and, in some cases, electronic control and digital feedback. Flow meters are designed for specific gas types and use different technologies for providing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001746
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... to reach the detector is the wavelength at which the gas under determination is absorbed. The infrared detector is a pyroelectric device that is highly sensitive to direct changes in heat. As combustion gases are carried to the measure chamber, the energy that the gas under determination absorbs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... of operating in 0-D, 1-D, or 2-D modes. Curved Position Sensitive—1-D The CPS detectors are gas-filled (ethane/argon) curved chambers consisting of a solid blade anode and segmented cathode that act as a proportional counter. When an x-ray photon becomes incident on the detector anode, an electrical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... and in a variety of shapes, diameters, and lengths. The thermocouple supplier should be consulted on the type or types of insulation available for each specific application. The hard-fired ceramic insulators that are used with base metal thermocouples are mullite, aluminum oxide, and steatite. Steatite is the most...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... covers the operating principles, applications, advantages, and disadvantages of optical emission spectroscopy (OES), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), X-ray spectroscopy, and ion chromatography (IC). In addition, information on combustion analysis and inert gas fusion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001738
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... and to determine the type of instrument necessary for a particular application. It discusses the working operations of gas mass spectrometer components, namely, the introduction system, ion sources, mass analyzers, and the ion detector. The article also provides information on resolution of a gas mass spectrometer...