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antiwear additives

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... ) Phosphonic acid Phosphonic acid derivative ( Ref 10 ) Examples and molecular structures of antiwear additives Table 3 Examples and molecular structures of antiwear additives Category Example Molecular structure Organosulfur MoDTC Organo-phosphorus Phosphorus based additive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
...Engine lubricant formulations Table 1 Engine lubricant formulations Engine oils Additive Gasoline Diesel Natural gas Aviation Two-cycle Dispersant • • • • • Detergent • • • • • Antiwear/extreme-pressure agent • • • • • Oxidation inhibitor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
..., Antiwear and Antioxidation Properties of an Organo-Molybdenum Lube Additive without Sulfur and Phosphorus , Lubr. Oil , Vol 22 ( No. 3 ), 2007 , p 43 – 48 19. Johnson D.W. and Hills J.E. , Phosphate Esters, Thiophosphate Esters and Metal Thiophosphates as Lubricant Additives...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006354
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... cold work, case hardening, and shot peening to induce compressive residual stresses Use lubricant with antiwear additives Use oil rather than grease, and use a high-pressure jet to flood the contact and flush away wear debris Store the gearbox in a vibration-free environment Support...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006366
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... B.G. , Mordukhovich G. , and Smolenski D.J. , Antiwear Performance and Mechanism of an Oil-Miscible Ionic Liquid as a Lubricant Additive , ACS Appl. Mater. Inter. , Vol 4 ( No. 2 ), 2012 , p 997 – 1002 10.1021/am201646k 67. Muhammad A. , Mutalib M.A. , Wilfred...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... general classes of oils: without additive, with fatty acid added, and with additives of the general types known as antiwear and extreme-pressure (EP) additives. Each is responsive to temperature in a manner different from the others. The temperature increase may be affected by general heating...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the two. The plastic material was bonded to the outer ring. Several products of degradation of oil (alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and acids), contaminants (such as water), and some antiwear additives in oil cause corrosion. A corrosive environment may selectively attack an alloy, removing only one...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... not contain paraffinic waxes and are better suited for certain low-temperature uses. These base stocks also have lower flash points and are more volatile, compared with paraffinic oils. Oils are often formulated with additional additives, such as antifoam and antiwear agents. Extreme-pressure/anti-wear...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... such as sulfur-base antiwear or extreme-pressure additives can increase separation of contacting surfaces through the generation of tribofilms, a chemical product resulting from the interaction between initial surfaces and lubricant ( Ref 2 , 3 ). As a typical example, this tribofilm consists of layers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006426
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... in moderate-speed, heavy-duty applications. In addition to categorizing rolling bearings according to rolling-element type, bearings also are identified according to the predominant type of load that they are designed to support, that is, a radial load or a thrust (axial) load. Thus, the subcategories include...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006661
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... on an oxidized steel surface to butoxy and adsorbed phosphorus-oxygen. This state is stable for temperatures up to ~600 K (325 °C), the temperature at which antiwear additives become active. In highly loaded contacts, local surface temperatures can approach 1000 K (725 °C), and at these high temperatures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... for different additive combinations (inorganic fullerene, or IF, WS 2 nanoparticle; normal 2H WS 2 particles; zinc-dithiophosphate, or Zn-DTP, antiwear additive; and caprolactam monomer) under a normal load of 10 N (2.2 lbf) (1 GPa, or 145 ksi) and sliding speeds of (a) 3 and (b) 10 Hz. (c) Schematic...
Book Chapter

By Rob Bosman
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006381
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
...% of the grease volume to which additional additives may be added to improve lubricating performance, such as antiwear additives, antioxidants, rust inhibitors, and so on. The main advantages of using grease as a lubricant rather than oil include: The main cause of the aforementioned benefits is due...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... surfaces Antiwear additive Reduce wear Organic phosphates, phosphites, zinc dithiophosphates Forms a film on metallic contacting surfaces Extreme-pressure additive Prevent galling, scoring, and seizure Sulfur, phosphorus, chlorine-containing materials Formation of low-shear films on metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006398
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... the effect on friction from three general classes of oils: without additive, with fatty acid added, and with additives of the general types known as antiwear and extreme pressure (EP) ( Ref 10 ). Each is responsive to temperature in a manner different from the others. The temperature increase may be effected...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
..., chlorinated hydrocarbons, chlorinated esters, phosphate esters, and alkyl acid phosphates. Closely associated with EP additives are so-called “antiwearadditives containing the same elements. A commonly used class of antiwear additives are the zinc dialkyl dithiophosphates. A new class of EP additives...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... wear: Surface damage caused or accelerated by chemical means. This can include (but is not limited to) thermal and/or electrochemical oxidation of metals. Common causes for corrosive wear can include water contamination, lubricant degradation, and (in some extreme cases) aggressive lubricant additives...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... illustrates chemical state mapping ability in addition to the Auger elemental imaging capability. The electron energy distribution, N ( E ), plots ( Fig. 3 ) contain direct information of Auger transitions. The dN ( E )/ dE function, which reduces the effect of high background, can be generated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... criteria such as solubility and diffusivity. These advantages, coupled with the additional possibility of low-temperature processing, have prompted explorations into applications in which the limitations of dimensional changes and possible delamination of conventional coatings are a concern. In almost all...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... particularly good for general machining operations on nonferrous metals. (4) Extreme pressure soluble oils Generally contain sulfurized or chlorinated extreme pressure additives. Used at dilutions between 1:5 and 1:20 where a higher performance than that given by (1), (2), and (3) is required. Chemical...