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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003595
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...Abstract Abstract Electropolishing is an electrochemical process that involves anodic dissolution of a metal specimen (anode electrode) in an electrolytic cell. This article reviews the two-electrode and three-electrode systems for electropolishing. It presents the equations of anodic reactions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003578
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...Abstract Abstract Electrochemical, or electrode, reactions occur with charge transfer between neutral or ionic reactants and a conducting material called the electrode. This article discusses cathodic reactions that result in reduction and anodic reactions that result in oxidation. It reviews...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003584
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... of charge transfer taking place at the electrode interface within the double layer and of mass transport at the vicinity of the electrode surface are discussed. The article describes the corrosion processes, which involve anodic and cathodic reactions at specific electrode sites. Some experimental methods...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... shelf reactions in zinc-carbon batteries and lead grid corrosion in lead-acid batteries. corrosion power-generating devices batteries anodes zinc anode mercury battery lithium metal anode rechargeable lithium battery zinc-carbon batteries lead grid corrosion lead-acid batteries...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... to the equilibrium between a metal and one of its oxides/hydroxides. The article schematically illustrates a current-potential or polarization curve for an anodic process. kinetics aqueous corrosion equilibrium potentials electrochemical reaction Nernst equation electronic conductivity passive films...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004170
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the influence of the materials, design, package type, and environment on corrosion in microelectronics. It describes the common sources and mechanisms of corrosion in microelectronics, including anodic, cathodic, and electrolytic reactions resulting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006483
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... No Reversible equilibrium voltage 1.20 η aa No Anode reaction overvoltage 0.50 η ca No Anode concentration overvoltage 0.02 V bub No Gas bubble voltage drop 0.05 V el No Electrolyte voltage drop 1.50 η ca No Cathode overvoltage 0.08 V cc Yes Cathode voltage drop 0.40...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003697
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...Abstract Abstract Cathodic protection is an electrochemical means of corrosion control in which the oxidation reaction in a galvanic cell is concentrated at the anode, which suppresses corrosion of the cathode in the same cell. This article provides a detailed discussion on the fundamentals...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003604
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., and electrochemical refining, that consume energy from external sources. Each of these processes consists of an electrochemical cell with an anode, cathode, and conductive medium or electrolyte. Each of these processes involves electrochemical oxidation and reduction reactions. The purpose of this introduction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
..., which are manifested in processes such as cleaning, brightening, etching, conversion coatings, electroplating, and anodizing. Point defects such as vacancies and dislocations agglomerate and accumulate at grain boundaries, which change the interfacial energy and confound the electrochemical reaction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003709
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... OH, CH 3 NH 2 , N 2 H 4 , OH − , Cl − , CN − , CH 3 COO − , or [Zn(H 2 O) 3 OH] + . Electrochemical Cell It is convenient to consider an electrochemical cell as consisting of two independent electrode or half-cell reactions. The anode supports an anodic reaction, and the cathode supports...
Book Chapter

By Jude Mary Runge
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006523
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... by the change in color from orange to green. Rinsing, although a critical part of a successful anodizing process, is not represented in this schematic. Two to three rinses should follow each chemical process to stop the chemical reaction that occurs in each process, assure the cleanliness of the surface going...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... into two reactions: the oxidation of zinc and the reduction of hydrogen ions: (Eq 3) Oxidation (anodic reaction) Zn  → Zn 2 + + 2 e (Eq 4) Reduction (cathodic reaction)  2 H + + 2 e → H 2 An oxidation or anodic reaction is indicated by an increase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003715
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... electrodes. The processes governing corrosion: These are electrode processes, involving oxidation and reduction reactions (or anodic or cathodic reactions). The corroding system does not produce any net charge and, thus, the electrons produced by the electrochemical oxidation of the metal (the anodic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... of the constituents, grain-boundary attack, and pitting due to electrochemical action may have drastic effects on the mechanical properties of the material, particularly the fatigue strength. Recent Advances in ECM as a Surface Finishing Process As mentioned earlier, different anodic reactions take place...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... of these metals to allow relatively fast cathodic reaction rates while limiting the reaction rate of the anodic reactions ( Ref 19 ). Limited anodic reaction rates result from the formation of thermodynamically or kinetically stable oxide films. Such oxide films reduce reactivity and enhance corrosion resistance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in the environment, prevent or reduce corrosion without significant reaction with the components of the environment. Chemical treatment or inhibitors can be used for corrosion control in aqueous environments. Inhibitors are classified as anodic inhibitors, cathodic inhibitors, and mixed inhibitors. Anodic inhibitors...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... anodic and cathodic reactions take place in constant change of location and time of the individual processes. In this concept, it is not necessary to postulate the presence of local anodes and cathodes for corrosion to occur. Nevertheless, in later years it has often been stated that corrosion occurs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003599
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... and an electrolyte. The features of electrode reactions in the refining process can be expressed as follows: (Eq 1) Anodic reaction:    M ( s ) , impure 0 → M ( aq ) n + + n e − (Eq 2) Cathodic reaction:    M ( aq ) n + + n e − → M ( s ) ,pure 0...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003586
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... on metals. Electrode Reaction Thermodynamics and Kinetics in Corrosion Metallic corrosion is usually an electrochemical process. Electrochemical processes require anodes and cathodes in electrical contact as well as an ionic conduction path through an electrolyte. The electron flow between the anodic...