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anodic oxide film

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Published: 01 January 2003
Fig. 2 Structure of porous type anodic oxide film formed on aluminum in acid solutions More
Image
Published: 01 January 2003
Fig. 9 TEM image of the vertical section of a porous type anodic oxide film on aluminum. The aluminum specimen was anodized for 5 min at 30 V in 0.16 M oxalic acid solution at 40 °C (140 °F) and then immersed for 1 h on open circuit in the same solution. More
Image
Published: 01 January 2003
Fig. 6 Distribution of protons and anions in porous type anodic oxide films. A, Al 2 O 3−x (anion) y · z H 2 O; B, Al 2 O 3−x (anion) y ; C, Al 2 O 3 More
Image
Published: 01 January 2003
Fig. 7 Coloring of porous type anodic oxide films on aluminum by (a) integral coloring, (b) dyeing, and (c) electrolytic coloring More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract Anodizing is one of the most common surface treatments of aluminum and is performed for corrosion protection. This article describes the structure and growth characteristics of the types of anodic oxide films such as a barrier-type oxide film and a porous-type anodic oxide film...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... alloys. The article also illustrates the effects of alloying on active anodic corrosion of titanium and repassivation behavior of titanium and titanium-base alloys. titanium oxide film titanium oxide depassivation scratching abrading fretting titanium alloys hexagonal close-packed beta...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... and stable passive film with thickness of 1–10 nanometers, which prevents further oxidation. When polarized as an anode, electrons from the aluminum easily transfer across the natural oxide, and no ionic tunneling occurs from the outside. Therefore, the aluminum oxide constitutes a barrier layer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... in voltage may overload the amperage and/or power capabilities of the equipment. A wide variety of anodization films with different thicknesses and colors can be produced. Voltage governs the thickness of the oxide layer, which determines the color (first gold, then red, green, blue, and black...
Book Chapter

By Jude Mary Runge
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006523
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... and growth of anodic aluminum oxide and the important characteristics of the finished porous anodic aluminum oxide. In industry, anodic oxides and the anodizing processes have been categorized into types that exhibit specific properties to suit specific applications. The article reviews the two most basic...
Book Chapter

By Jerome Kruger
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003585
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., structure, electronic properties, and mechanical properties. The article outlines three possible processes that can form passive films: direct film formation, dissolution precipitation, and anodic oxidation of metal ions in solution. It describes the breakdown of the passive film using various models...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... to the equilibrium between a metal and one of its oxides/hydroxides. The article schematically illustrates a current-potential or polarization curve for an anodic process. kinetics aqueous corrosion equilibrium potentials electrochemical reaction Nernst equation electronic conductivity passive films...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... significantly influence the properties of aluminum alloys. There are organic coatings or paints that provide a barrier between a corrosive environment and aluminum surface. Inorganic coatings, including claddings, and enhanced oxides, such as anodized films, Boehmite films, and conversion coatings also help...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003672
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... inhibitors corrosion protection CORROSION is an oxidation reaction where the corroding metal is the anode in an electrochemical cell. In addition to the anode, there are three other components that are necessary for corrosion to occur: an aggressive environment, a cathode where the reduction reaction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract Tantalum is one of the most versatile corrosion-resistant metals known. The outstanding corrosion resistance and inertness of tantalum are attributed to a very thin, impervious, protective oxide film that forms on exposure of the metal to slightly anodic or oxidizing conditions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003595
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Formation of anodic film during electropolishing Anodic Processes Anodic dissolution processes are complex. Depending on the nature of the dissolving metal (M), the electrolyte composition, and the current density, the following anodic (oxidation) reactions may occur: Transfer of metal ions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006491
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... and density. Such variations can result in differences in adhesion of the electroplated layer. The natural oxide film on aluminum prevents adequate adhesion of an electroplated deposit. However, formation of an anodic oxide coating on the aluminum surface under controlled conditions is a recognized...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006499
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... oxide in the pores to hydrated aluminum oxide, which is a larger molecule and literally clogs or fills up the pore with hydrated aluminum oxide. Adapted from Ref 2 Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of the anodized film on aluminum before (left) and after (right) the sealing process. Reprinted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... and oxidation resistance through the use of polishing, buffing, and wire brushing operations. The article also covers a wide range of surface modification and coating processes, including ion implantation, diffusion, chemical and physical vapor deposition, plating, anodizing, and chemical conversion coatings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... hand, very high resistance to anodic current flow (anodic polarization) across this passive oxide film can be expected in most aqueous solutions. Because the passivity of titanium stems from the formation of a stable oxide film, an understanding of the corrosion behavior of titanium is obtained...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... (i.e., conversion coating or thin anodized film). The exposure of the freshly acidic-etched (pickled) surface to boiling water produces a corrosion-resistant but only moderately strong oxide layer. Thus, this surface treatment method should only be used for lightly stressed joints using flexible...