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anodic oxidation

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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of a generic corrosion cell showing anodic oxidation of the metal ( M ) complemented by cathodic reduction of an electron acceptor ( X ). The corrosion rate can be controlled by the rate of arrival of X at the cathodic surface, a buildup of metal ions, M More
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Published: 30 November 2018
Fig. 1 Schematic of the structure of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO). The anodic oxide is a self-assembled network of individual columnar cells that have rounded bottoms. Each column of the AAO structure circumscribes its critical feature, the central pore, which is the conduit for ion exchange More
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Published: 30 November 2018
Fig. 5 Anodic oxide growth and development relies on ion exchange, producing an ion pump in the pores of the oxide structure. The applied current density, i a , is carried by electrons in the anode, dragging Al 3+ ions to polarized centers across the component center. These centers More
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Published: 30 November 2018
Fig. 9 Atomic force microscopy image of a type III anodic oxide structure on a high-purity aluminum substrate shows that the finish piles up at the substrate grain boundaries, even on a most ideal substrate. More
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Published: 01 January 2003
Fig. 2 Structure of porous type anodic oxide film formed on aluminum in acid solutions More
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Published: 01 January 2003
Fig. 6 Distribution of protons and anions in porous type anodic oxide films. A, Al 2 O 3−x (anion) y · z H 2 O; B, Al 2 O 3−x (anion) y ; C, Al 2 O 3 More
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Published: 01 January 2003
Fig. 7 Coloring of porous type anodic oxide films on aluminum by (a) integral coloring, (b) dyeing, and (c) electrolytic coloring More
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Published: 01 January 2003
Fig. 9 TEM image of the vertical section of a porous type anodic oxide film on aluminum. The aluminum specimen was anodized for 5 min at 30 V in 0.16 M oxalic acid solution at 40 °C (140 °F) and then immersed for 1 h on open circuit in the same solution. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract Anodizing is one of the most common surface treatments of aluminum and is performed for corrosion protection. This article describes the structure and growth characteristics of the types of anodic oxide films such as a barrier-type oxide film and a porous-type anodic oxide film...
Book Chapter

By Jude Mary Runge
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006523
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... and growth of anodic aluminum oxide and the important characteristics of the finished porous anodic aluminum oxide. In industry, anodic oxides and the anodizing processes have been categorized into types that exhibit specific properties to suit specific applications. The article reviews the two most basic...
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Published: 30 November 2018
Fig. 18 Anodized and dyed accessory knobs. The anodic aluminum oxide must be of a thickness to maintain color through dyeing; a thicker oxide (∼20 μm) yields a beautiful, stable, black color. In total, the dyed anodic oxide has the added value of appearance, haptic, and durability over plastic More
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Published: 30 November 2018
Fig. 12 (a) Schematic of the structure of the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) (b) TEM image of AAO processed under hard anodizing conditions (low temperature, high current density). The anodic oxide is a self-assembled network of individual columnar cells that have rounded bottoms. Each column More
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