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annealed steel

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... iron, these products do not require normalizing; they are either box annealed or continuously annealed. These processing changes result in steels that are more formable than their predecessors. Experience to date indicates that the enameling characteristics are similar to those of enameling iron, and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003090
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... drawn 705 102 595 86 10 30 207 Low-alloy steels (b) 1340 Normalized at 870 °C (1600 °F) 834 121 558 81 22.0 63 248 Annealed at 800 °C (1475 °F) 703 102 434 63 25.5 57 207 3140 Normalized at 870 °C (1600 °F) 889 129 600 87 19.7 57 262 Annealed at 815 °C...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001269
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... electroplated and chemical conversion coatings. Modern continuous annealing lines use similar methods to clean steel strip before heat treatment. The term “line” refers to the sequenced operations in the coating process. Surface preparation usually comprises separate cleaning steps, which can be used either...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... hot processing, steel strip is cleaned and heated in a reducing gas atmosphere, typically a mixture of hydrogen and nitrogen, in order to prepare the surface for coating. Annealing of cold-rolled steel by heating above its recrystallization temperature of about 700 °C (1300 °F) is usually a part of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... an oxidizing atmosphere to remove organic oils and surface contaminants, followed by heating in a reducing furnace with a hydrogen-rich atmosphere to reduce the surface oxide layer and to anneal the steel substrate. The discharge end of the reducing furnace is below the surface of the zinc bath; this...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... feeds the strip into the line. It may consist of payoff reels, a shear, a strip welder, an edge-notcher, a burr masher, a degreasing section, and an accumulator tower. Coils of cold-rolled, fully annealed steel are loaded onto the entry reels and are fed into the continuous line. The head end of a new...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006284
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... brasses, and in low-carbon steels. In the former case, the hardening is probably due to a rearrangement of the zinc atoms in the crystal lattice. In the latter case, it is due to precipitation hardening. Because of the highly nonhomogeneous microstructure of a plastically cold-worked metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract The processing of steel involves five distinct sets of texture development mechanisms, namely, austenite deformation, austenite recrystallization, gamma-to-alpha transformation, ferrite deformation, and static recrystallization during annealing after cold rolling. This article provides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
..., 6463, and 7005, and no separate solution heat treating operation is needed. For steels, hot forming and quenching is a traditional way to achieve the highest strength by martensitic transformation. The same is applicable for aluminum alloys; hot press forming with subsequent quenching can ieve a...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Heat treating of stainless steel produces changes in physical condition, mechanical properties, and residual stress level and restores maximum corrosion resistance when that property has been adversely affected by previous fabrication or heating. This article focuses on annealing of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006266
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... and are most commonly used in applications for which stainless steels are inadequate. Others are used in specialized applications and should not be considered substitutes for stainless steel. Common types of heat treatments include: Homogenization (sometimes done as part solution treating...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003202
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract All tool steels are heat treated to develop specific combinations of wear resistance, resistance to deformation or breaking under loads, and resistance to softening at elevated temperature. This article describes recommended heat treating practices, such as normalizing, annealing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005968
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract The heat treatment of steel involves a number of processes (such as stress relieving, normalizing, annealing etc) to condition the microstructure and obtain desired properties. This article discusses typical heat treating process control procedures for carbon and low-alloy steels, as...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003196
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article describes the heat treating (stress relieving, normalizing, annealing, quenching, tempering, martempering, austempering, and age hardening) of different types of steels, including ultrahigh-strength steels, maraging steels, and powder metallurgy steels. Tabulating the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003116
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... corrosion resistance. This article provides a detailed account of such difficulties encountered in the fabrication of wrought stainless steel by forming, forging, cold working, machining, heat treating, and joining processes. Stainless steels are subjected to various heat treatments such as annealing...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... for the mechanical properties of selected carbon and alloy steels in the hot-rolled, normalized, annealed, and quenched-and tempered condition are provided. alloy steels alloying elements annealed steel carbon steels hot-rolled steel mechanical properties normalized steel quenched-and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
..., submerged-electrode furnaces, immersed-electrode furnaces, and externally heated furnaces. It discusses the important applications of various furnace designs, including the austempering of ductile iron, the hardening of tool steels, and the isothermal annealing of high-alloy steels. case hardening...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... metallurgy, and applications of nickel and nickel alloys are described in Volume 2 of ASM Handbook; information on heat-resistant nickel alloys and stainless steels is provided in Volume 1 of ASM Handbook. This article describes cleaning and finishing of nickel alloys; additional and related information...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Aluminum (99.0% +) 290 550 Aluminum alloys 320 600 Nickel (99.99%) 370 700 Nickel (99.4%) 590 1100 Nickel (30% Cu) 590 1100 Iron (electrolytic) 400 750 Low-carbon steel 540 1000 Magnesium (99.99%) 65 150 Magnesium alloys 540 1000 Zinc 10 50 Tin −5 25...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006261
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... the wrought form. Nickel-base alloys are more expensive than stainless steels, but, when the life-cycle costs are considered, nickel materials can be more cost-effective. Nickel-base alloys cover a wide range of properties and applications, although they are most commonly recognized for their use in...