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angular-dependent strain

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006442
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... external field. The relationship between uniaxial stress and angular-dependent strain is also discussed. The influence of stress on domain walls, and therefore, the generation of Barkhausen noise are described. The article also describes the directional and angular MBN measurements and provides information...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... by the total length of the load train between the rigid supports. The mean shear strain rate, γ ˙ m , in the specimen is related to the angular velocity of the two ends of the specimen by: γ ˙ m = γ ˙ a R a + R i 2 R a where (Eq 1) γ ˙ a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
..., depending on the size of specimen, environmental conditions, and measurement requirements for accuracy and precision of anticipated strain levels. A simple method is to use the velocity of the crosshead while tracking the load as a function of time. For the load and time data pair, the stress in the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... , then the normal strain calculated from Eq 3 would have a negative sign, indicating that the strain was compressive. Deformation of a body can result not only in the change of length of a line in the body, but it may also produce a change in the angle between two lines. The resulting angular change...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0009219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... Typical strain-life curve for a wrought steel If an analytical expression is to be defined between stress and life or strain and life, it is important to decide which variable will be selected as the dependent variable. A relationship between two variables can be defined as: (Eq 2) y = A 0...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article focuses on the factors that determine the extent of deformation a metal can withstand before cracking or fracture occurs. It informs that workability depends on the local conditions of stress, strain, strain rate, and temperature in combination with material factors. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... is recorded at two gage stations. Source: Ref 21 The average shear strain rate in the specimen as a function of time, γ ˙ s ( t ), is determined from the difference in the angular velocity between its two ends by: (Eq 4) γ ˙ s ( t ) = r s L s [ θ...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005116
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... material cut zone. The angular fracture and the quality of the cut, the punched hole, or the blank are greatly dependent on the amount of clearance between the two opposed cutting edges. Fig. 3 shows the clearance as being the distance between the mating cutting edges. Without proper clearance, the...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... maximum and minimum residual stresses, the maximum shear stress, and their orientation relative to a reference direction. Macrostresses strain many crystals uniformly in the surface. This uniform distortion of the crystal lattice shifts the angular position of the diffraction peak selected for residual...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... ) ⋅ 100 A 0 Extrusion (ram) pressure ( p av ) p av σ ¯ = a + b ⋅ ln [ R ] where σ ¯ denotes material flow stress, and a and b denote material-dependent constants Average effective strain rate in deformation zone ( ε ¯ ˙ ) ε...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005542
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... ) ⋅ 100 A 0 Extrusion (ram) pressure, p av p av σ ¯ = a + b ⋅ ln R in which σ ¯ denotes material flow stress, and a and b denote material-dependent constants Average effective strain rate in deformation zone, ε ¯ ˙ ε...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003378
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Abstract The properties of unidirectional composite (UDC) materials are quite different from those of conventional, metallic materials. This article provides information on the treatment of UDC stress-strain relations in the forms appropriate for analysis of thin plies of material. It explains...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... Reduction ( r ), %: r = ( A 0 − A f ) ⋅ 100 A 0 Extrusion (ram) pressure ( p av ) p av σ ¯ = a + b ⋅ ln [ R ] where σ ¯ denotes material flow stress, and a and b denote material-dependent constants Average effective strain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... rotations for flat billets during multipass equal-channel angular extrusion Rotation Angle of rotation 0° 90° 180° 270° ϕ 1 + − + − ϕ 2 + − + − ϕ 3 + + + + +, possible rotation; −, impossible rotation. Table 3 Equivalent strains for equal-channel angular...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005506
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... history analysis. This makes FE well suited to simulate complex mechanical processing steps that result in material and geometric nonlinearity with temperature- and strain-rate-dependent material properties. Unfortunately, these capabilities require a significant amount of material data, including...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... satisfactory for many applications. The true strain is used in the theoretical analysis of formability and is advantageous in that successive strains can be added to give the cumulative strain. The properties of sheet metals vary considerably, depending on the base metal (steel, aluminum, copper, and so...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003995
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., calculating the “average” strain rate for each pass is an acceptable simplification. Referring to Fig. 1 , the average strain rate for each pass is regarded as the strain divided by the time taken for the roll to move the angular distance α, which corresponds to the points of entry and exit of the roll gap...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
...), produced by equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) ( Ref 3 ), high pressure torsion (HPT) ( Ref 4 ), or merely large strain torsion testing ( Ref 5 ). Ultrafine grain strucutres can be obtained in this way. When dynamic recovery is weak, local concentrations of dislocations lead to various types of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., when temperature increases, from hard and brittle to soft and tough behavior for cellulose acetate. At temperatures above the T g , strain rate, creep, and other time-dependent viscoelastic effects also become factors. Fig. 8 The stress-strain behavior of cellulose acetate at different...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... number of Burgers correspondence variants and orientation variants. The article also includes calculation of the transformation strain with contributions from defect structures developed at alpha/beta interfaces as a precipitates grow in size. In the CALculation of PHAse Diagram (CALPHAD) framework, the...