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angular distribution

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... Fig. 8 Slip lines for equal-channel angular extrusion with round corner channels Distributions of accumulated shears γ through a billet thickness h ( Fig. 5 ) after ECAE with considered friction conditions are shown in Fig. 9 . Analysis of the solutions demonstrates that actual stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article presents a general description of pulsed-laser deposition. It describes the components of pulsed-laser deposition equipment. The article also discusses the effects of angular distribution of materials. Finally, the article reviews the characteristics of high-temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006442
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... external field. The relationship between uniaxial stress and angular-dependent strain is also discussed. The influence of stress on domain walls, and therefore, the generation of Barkhausen noise are described. The article also describes the directional and angular MBN measurements and provides information...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... simply the angular distribution of scattered intensity from which information about the interplanar spacings may be derived. These measured Bragg intensities are directly related to the crystal structure and chemical composition of the material via the structure factors (F hkl ) by: (Eq 4) I...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... curve can be obtained: Angular peak position, which indicates macroscopic curvature and local lattice tilts Peak intensity Peak full width at half maximum, which indicates the local crystalline perfection These maps provide a visual impression of the defect distribution and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... of composition is angular resolved XPS, which is, however, restricted to a probing depth of 2 to 3 times the electron attenuation length (i.e., to <5 nm for conventional XPS). By tilting the sample around an axis perpendicular to the analyzer axis and away from the latter, relatively more and more...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005940
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... ( Fig. 15 ). Graphically, this can be understood as a deformation of the surface in the shape of a saddle. Two preferred distortion directions of the saddle are identified in the complex plane. The slight angular shift between the direction of the saddle and the orientation of the loading tool could be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005432
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
...), and the errors associated with limitations of the spatial and angular resolution inherent to the experiment ( Ref 26 ). Crucial for a recrystallization simulation is the need to make some assumption about the stored-energy distribution based on the EBSD pattern quality ( Ref 27 ). The EBSD maps are...
Book Chapter

By Erhard Klar
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... active milling additives can be used. The particle shape of powders made by mechanical processing ranges from angular to irregular. Figure 8 shows a scanning electron micrograph of an electrolytic iron powder made by the milling of a brittle electrodeposited sheet. Figure 9 shows angular shaped...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003052
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... reactions, filtration and washing, and powder recovery techniques. It concludes with a discussion on characterization, centering on size distribution analysis, specific surface area, density, porosity chemical composition, phase, and surface composition. ceramic powders ceramic processing additives...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... characteristics of fatigue fractures followed by a discussion on the effects of loading and stress distribution, and material condition on the microstructure of the material. In addition, general prevention and characteristics of corrosion fatigue, contact fatigue, and thermal fatigue are also presented...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... of the basic data includes the choice of triangulation methods, stereophotogrammetry, or the angular distribution of elements along the fracture profile. Although these procedures allow the fracture surface area to be estimated, they are essentially only approximations of the complex and irregular...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006646
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... sublevels, and the multipolarity ( L ) of the transition. The function G m L φ determines the angular distribution of the radiation as a function of the angle φ between the internal field and the direction of γ-ray propagation. Table 2 lists the angular functions for the cases in which L...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006637
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... r d P r where P(r) is the displacement probability. Selecting different ψ values, the angular distribution is obtained by repeating the aforementioned calculation procedure. In the half-way-plane approach, a displacement is assumed to emit particles isotropically, and the distribution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... electrons at different scattering angles, that is, imaging based on angular selection. Fig. 17 Schematic summary of interactions between an electron beam and a thin specimen in transmission electron microscopy Some electrons can be scattered at very high angles (>90°), which is the incident...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... backscatter diffraction, illustrated in Fig. 37 , uses a two-dimensional scintillator detector and a charge-coupled device camera to image the angular spread in BE intensity emanating from a single point. Because the electron beam undergoes both inelastic and elastic scattering within the BE escape depth of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... number of molecular trajectories from an initially estimated configuration of the system. A corresponding distribution function is selected and stored at each point in the phase space. From the assumed distribution, a large number of test trajectories and molecular collisions are computed on a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... printouts. Calculated quantities may include the “true” length of the profile, its projected length, and the angular distribution of elementary segments along the curve. Figure 2 shows typical fractal data obtained from the profile of an AISI 4340 steel fractured at room temperature ( Ref 8 ). The...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... incident beam. By summing the contributions of the scattered beams from all of the electrons, it is possible to predict the angular distribution of the x-rays emitted from the sample. The mathematics of this summing process is not as overwhelming as it might first appear. Because the electrons are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... of an x-ray source is not only related to the total flux of photons it emits but is also dependent on the angular divergence of the radiation. Inside a laboratory x-ray tube, x-rays are generated in all directions from the metal anode, and only a small fraction come through the beryllium window of...