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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... in machining. The thrust force or separating force determines the accuracy produced on the part. Table 1 shows typical tables of the force components for several work materials. Table 1 Turning forces Material and hardness Tool rake angle Feed (ipr) Force (pounds) per inch depth (a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004034
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... machining of all forged surfaces) usually depends on the type of forging produced; type of forging, in turn, imposes restrictions on allowable draft. (see “Draft angle vs. Forging process” in preceding point). If a forging is to be machined all over, there is less reason for restricting the amount of draft...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... their centers by the sinusoidally varying electric field of the incident beam. Each oscillating electron, in turn, emits electromagnetic radiation of the same wavelength as the incident beam. This emitted radiation goes out radially from the electron over the entire 360° solid angle. In effect, each...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... negative point angle in drilling is equivalent to a negative side-cutting-edge angle in turning, and speeds of 70 to 120 m/min (230 to 395 ft/min) give excellent surface finish, cylindricity, and roundness. At speeds of 70 m/min (230 ft/min) a builtup edge is formed. Figure 7 shows a chip root obtained...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... position indicators, which in turn, feed position data to the x - y plotter or facsimile device. Echo-recording systems vary; some produce a shaded-line scan with echo amplitude recorded as a variation in line shading, while others indicate flaws by an absence of shading, so each flaw appears as a blank...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... broader, and their behavior with diffraction parameters reveals the existence of twin boundaries. If the film had (111) orientation but with a random azimuthal orientation (random rotations around the surface normal), diffraction still would be possible, but the spots would turn into rings. Any two...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... surface has a carved appearance along the pipe or tube wall. Impingement attack or corrosion is a term used to describe some severe forms of erosion-corrosion, where impingement is encountered and erosion is more intense. It occurs frequently in turns or elbows of tubes and pipes and on surfaces of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... on an atomic scale rather than the millimeter scale of electrical resistance strain gages. Therefore, samples must be crystalline, fairly fine grained, and not too highly oriented so that well-defined diffraction peaks are produced by many crystals at any angle to the surface. Fortunately, most high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005412
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... considerable challenge for atomistic modeling of the interface structure and reactions. The kinetics of interface reactions depend on their structure, whether it is disordered and noncoherent, semicoherent, or with structural dislocations, or coherent/low energy composed of one kind of SUs. This, in turn...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006474
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... these methods in turn dictate the application of the systems to nondestructive inspection. Neither of these two types of systems relies on the interferometric techniques of optical holographic inspection, in which information on flaws at or near the surface of a test object is obtained from the pattern...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... turn. With each replacement block, repeat steps 2 and 3. Read the indication height as for area-amplitude calibration (and have the unit record data if DAC is included in the unit calibration options). Plot (or have the unit calculate and display) the heights of each hole-bottom indication...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003152
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...; turning, planing, slotting, low cutting speeds, large chip sections, with the possibility of large cutting angles for machining in unfavorable conditions (b) and work on automatic machines M10 Steel, steel castings, manganese steel, gray cast iron, alloy cast iron Turning, medium or high cutting...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... in.); the larger threads can be as long as 6 m (20 ft). Thread forms of 60° roll easily. In more blunt forms, metal flows with greater difficulty. Threads with fully rounded roots are more easily rolled than threads with wide, flat roots. Flank angles of less than 10° included angle and thread...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... cast irons and a white cast iron. As the percentage of ferrite decreases and the pearlite increases, the tool life obtained in machining operations such as turning, face milling, and drilling decreases ( Fig. 1 ). Additionally, the finer the pearlite spacing, the lower the tool life ( Fig. 1...
Book Chapter

By Ted Kostilnik
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... 2 Effect of shot peening on fatigue strength of aluminum alloys and carbon and low-alloy steels Metal tested Type of specimen Stress cycle Surface condition as-received Aluminum alloys 2014-T6 Plain, 38 mm (1.5 in.) diam Reversed bending Smooth turned (a) 2024-T4 Plain...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003232
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... materials. When current is passed through a coil of one or more turns, a magnetic field is established lengthwise, or longitudinally, within the coil, as shown in Fig. 3 (b). The nature and direction of the field around the conductor that forms the turns of the coil produce longitudinal magnetization...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005428
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
..., which has a profound influence on the network topology because it implies that in two-dimension 2-D the number of boundaries impinging on a vertex is always equal to three. In other words, only triple points with 120° vertex angles are stable ( Ref 3 ). Fourfold and higher vertices, if formed, will...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004014
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... industries. Other names for this process include Roll Flo (LeFiell Manufacturing Co. Santa Fe Springs, CA) and Flow Turning (Lodge & Shipley Co.); similar processes include shear forming, spin forging, and tube spinning. One important benefit of the flow-forming process is the use of preforms for stock...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., the number of turns to failure is felt to be a useful measure of surface-region fracture resistance. It should always be emphasized, however, that the strain is highest at the surface in this test. That is: (Eq 7) γ = R Δ ϕ L where γ is the torsional shear strain, R is the radial...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005422
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... the dependency of the grain-boundary energy on the inclination angle induces another force to be considered at the triple junction It is noted that the sign of the torque, M , determines the direction of the normal vector n → . In turn, Δ s is the length of a segment of boundary i...