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ancient metallic artifacts

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0006841
EISBN: 978-1-62708-387-4
... of coatings. ancient metallic artifacts bronze chemical analysis cracks fractography fractures gold alloys metallography restoration silver alloys wrought iron THE FRACTOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS of ancient metallic artifacts is a minor or nonexistent consideration for most archaeometallurgical...
Image
Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 20 Velvetlike corrosion growths on the surface of an ancient copper alloy vessel. The subtle form of the object is all but obscured by corrosion growths. See the article “Corrosion of Metal Artifacts and Works of Art in Museum and Collection Environments” in this Volume. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004142
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... discusses the key environmental variables that affect the corrosion of buried metal artifacts. These include water (including dissolved salts and gases), sulfate-reducing bacteria, pH (acidity), and potential (oxidizing or reducing capacity). The article contains tables that list some corrosion products...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003803
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... their archaeological contexts without proper recording, which can happen, for example, by the actions of an overenthusiastic artifact collector or an illicit tombrobber. The actual artifacts include not only metallic objects but also related material, including debris from metal producing and metalworking sites...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004140
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... and to avoid other potentially damaging materials. carbonyl compounds corrosion pollutants plastics sulfur wood corrosive agents museums metal artifacts BRIDGES, AUTOMOBILES AND SHIPS have little in common with bronze sculptures, silver commemorative plaques, or lead archaeological artifacts...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... 2003. See the article “Corrosion of Metal Artifacts Displayed in Outdoor Environments” in this Volume. Fig. 20 Velvetlike corrosion growths on the surface of an ancient copper alloy vessel. The subtle form of the object is all but obscured by corrosion growths. See the article “Corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006320
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... and use with wrought native copper. It was not until approximately 5000 B.C. that metal casting was invented, as humans learned to melt and cast copper. Fig. 1 Birthplace of metals. Source: Ref 1 The earliest successful iron founding is generally credited to the ancient Mesopotamian...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Abstract This article describes the various environmental factors that cause corrosion on metal artifacts, which include water, temperature fluctuations, pollutants, local conditions of acidity or alkalinity, vegetation, and animals. The corrosion processes experienced by five common metals...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003751
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... the microstructure of valuable archaeological artifacts, metallic artwork, Damascus swords, and meteor fragments. Since only a few microns of surface area are removed during grinding and polishing, the technique in most cases will not damage the component. With proper etching techniques the microstructure can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... for typical targets often encountered in PIXE analysis: low- Z (atomic number) targets, such as air filters and biological samples; medium- Z targets, such as silicon chips, rocks, and pottery; and high- Z targets, such as transition metals. In addition, the thicknesses of targets necessary to meet a thin...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001734
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... in milligrams per square centimeter for typical targets often encountered in PIXE analysis: low- Z (atomic number) targets, such as air filters and biological samples; medium- Z targets, such as silicon chips, rocks, and pottery; and high- Z targets, such as transition metals. In addition, the thicknesses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., magnesium, sodium, potassium, copper) Industrial production of chlorine and chlorate ions Cleaning of metallic artifacts (coins, statues, and ancient weapons) ( Ref 5 , 6 ) and restoration of parts ( Ref 7 ) Synthesis of polyfluorinated organic compounds (electrofluorination) Reduction of CO 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001078
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... to man. Probably the oldest lead artifact is a figure made about 3000 BC, which was found in the temple of Osiris near Abydos. All civilizations, beginning with the ancient Egyptians, Assyrians, and Babylonians, have used lead for many ornamental and structural purposes. Many magnificent buildings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001066
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... process. The manufacture of sheet and strip in the modern brass mill begins with one of two basic casting operations: either the molten metal is cast in the form of slabs that are subsequently heated and hot rolled to coils of heavy-gage strip, or the metal is directly cast in strip form and coiled...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004168
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... of metal bridges and corrosion control, including the use of weathering steels and coating systems. bridges coating systems corrosion corrosion control electrochemical methods highways inspection pH portland cement concrete roadway weathering steels electrolyte conventional reinforcement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627082136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627081788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... materials, including ferrous alloys, nonferrous alloys, ceramics, cermets and cemented carbides, engineering plastics, polymer-matrix composites, metal-matrix composites, ceramic-matrix and carbon-carbon composites, and reviews their general property characteristics and applications. It describes...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... in an evacuated tube by electrons impinging on a metal target. The source of electrons is a fine wire (cathode), normally tungsten, that is heated electrically at about 2 A. Electrons are removed from the cathode and accelerated across an evacuated space by application of high voltage (about 50 kV) to the target...