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ambient temperature

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract The constitutive relations for metalworking include elements of behavior at ambient temperature as well as high-temperature response. This article presents equations for strain hardening and strain-rate-sensitive flow, with alternate sections on empirically determined properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article contains a table that lists the electrical conductivity and resistivity of selected metals, alloys, and materials at ambient temperature. These include aluminum and aluminum alloys; copper and copper alloys; electrical heating alloys; instrument and control alloys; relay...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... temperature, ambient atmosphere, and number of high-to-low temperature cycles. Fig. 6 Simple thermocouple (upper view) and cutaway of a thermocouple assembly (lower view) Resistance temperature detectors are contact-type sensors. Their electrical resistance is proportional...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... turbine engine applications, they are still in various stages of research and development. Current gas turbine engines use the Brayton cycle, a thermodynamic cycle that describes the workings of a constant-pressure heat engine, which is an isentropic and isobaric process. Ambient air pressurized in a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article focuses on laboratory atomic force microscopes (AFMs) used in ambient air and liquid environments. It begins with a discussion on the origin of AFM and development trends occurring in AFM. This is followed by a section on the general principles of AFM and a comprehensive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005968
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... temperature followed by cooling under conditions such that, after return to ambient temperature, the metal will be in a structural state closer to that of equilibrium The primary purpose of annealing is to soften the steel to enhance its workability and machinability. Also, it relieves internal stresses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.../reverse thrust/ground idle excursions as (varying) elevated-temperature low-cycle fatigue events. One may then view the cruise portion of the flight as elevated-temperature high-cycle fatigue events (fatigue creep). Each of these excursions is affected in some way by the ambient temperature (time of day...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... fracture and low ductility at ambient temperatures. It has also been found that quite a number of ordered intermetallics, such as iron aluminides, exhibit environmental embrittlement at ambient temperatures. The embrittlement involves the reaction of water vapor in air with reactive elements (aluminum, for...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... cal/mole-bead-K ( Ref 102 ). A bead is defined as the smallest structural unit that can take part in motion above the T g . The specific heats of polymers generally range in value from 1250 to 2510 J/kg · K (0.3 to 0.6 cal/g · °C) at ambient temperatures. The specific heats of metals, in comparison...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... accuracy of the temperature sensor and the connecting circuitry. The accuracy of the measurement instrument is defined in its specifications under referenced conditions for its power supply, ambient conditions (temperature and humidity), electrical noise rejection, and maximum source impedance. The...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... protection devices such as sprinkler heads. Many of the fusible alloys used in industrial applications are based on eutectic compositions ( Table 1 ). Under ambient temperature, such an alloy has sufficient strength to hold parts together; at a specific elevated temperature, however, the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) are being developed for a number of high-temperature and high-performance applications in industrial, aerospace, and energy conservation sectors. This article focuses on processing, fabrication, testing, and characterization methods of CMCs, namely...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... The article describes testing methods such as room and high-temperature strength test methods, proof testing, fracture toughness measurement, and hardness and wear testing. It also explains methods for determining thermal expansion, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and emissivity of ceramics and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001280
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... to 400 °C (700 to 750 °F). (c) Aqueous solution containing 1 to 4 vol% 70% hydrofluoric acid and 15 to 25% nitric acid (1.41 sp gr); temperature, 60 to 82 °C (140 to 180 °F). Solution may be used at ambient temperature by increasing immersion time. (d) Aqueous solution containing 12 to 20 vol...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... frequently very hard or brittle at ambient temperatures, understanding corrosion could enable the creation of inexpensive electrochemical fabrication methods. Electropolishing, acid saw cutting, and electrochemical machining are examples of fabrication processes that use corrosion reactions to produce...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003118
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...-50, but nickel imparts higher strength and toughness levels. A grade available with controlled ferrite CF-3, CF-8, CF-20, CF-3M, CF-8M, CF-8C, CF-16F CF types; most widely used corrosion-resistant alloys at ambient and cryogenic temperatures M variations: enhanced resistance to halogen ion and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003992
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Rinse Water (high-pressure spray) Ambient 2 Water 80 (175) 1–2 Open-die forging (hand forging) is often used for smaller quantities for which the cost of closed dies cannot be justified and in cases in which delivery requirements dictate shortened lead times. Generally, products include...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... steady-state/whole-body excitation, the temperature of the entire part is raised above (or lowered below) the ambient temperature, and the part returns to equilibrium with its surroundings through the process of thermal convection. In transient excitation, the surface is excited and the part returns to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006272
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... different preaging sequences. (a) Directly quenched from solution treatment into salt baths for isothermal hold times at intermediate temperatures of 400, 350, and 300 °C (750, 660, and 570 °F), followed by ice water quench to ambient temperature. (b) Quenched in ice water to ambient temperature and then...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004014
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... either three or four rolls are positioned in-line with one another both axially and radially. Both methods of flow forming can be done cold (at ambient temperature) or hot (above recrystallization temperature), depending on material. Hot flow forming requires subsequent operations to improve surface...