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allotropic transformation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
..., refining, and melting. It also discusses the primary and secondary fabrication of zirconium and hafnium and its alloys. The article talks about the metallurgy of zirconium and its alloys with emphasis on allotropic transformation, cold work and recrystallization, anisotropy and preferred orientation...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article discusses the general characteristics, primary and secondary fabrication methods, product forms, and corrosion resistance of zirconium and hafnium. It describes the physical metallurgy of zirconium and its alloys, providing details on allotropic transformation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... Abstract This article presents a table of the crystal structure of allotropic forms of metallic elements in terms of the Pearson symbol, space group, and prototype of the structure. The temperatures of the phase transformations are listed in degree Celsius and the pressures are in GPa...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001430
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... potential sources of iron contamination be avoided. Steel wire brushes should not be used for interpass cleaning of titanium weldments. Titanium is a single (α) phase material with a hcp crystal structure. However, an allotropic transformation occurs at temperatures above approximately 870 °C (1600 °F...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... dependent on temperature and pressure; these materials are called polymorphic , or allotropic for pure elements. The most commonly used allotropic element is iron, which undergoes a series of phase transformations as a function of temperature and pressure ( Fig. 3 ). At room temperature, iron has...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... precipitation can occur, resulting in additional strengthening. With respect to their effects on the allotropic transformation, alloying elements in titanium are classified by three categories ( Ref 1 ): Alpha stabilizers: Elements, when dissolved in titanium, that tend to stabilize the α phase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... growth. The article also describes the various types of solid-state transformations such as isothermal transformation and athermal transformation, resulting from the heat treatment of nonferrous alloys. It provides information on the homogenization of chemical composition within a cast structure...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... magnetized in the direction of the cube edge, {100}. When the silicon content in pure iron exceeds approximately 2 1 2 %, the allotropic transformation of iron from α to γ is suppressed. The absence of this transformation allows the higher silicon-iron alloy to be fully ferritic up...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003116
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... A wide range of forging temperatures can be used for most of the common austenitic types because of the natural workability of austenite and the absence of allotropic transformation. The conventional 18-8 types often are forged at temperatures up to 1260 °C (2300 °F). However, the upper temperature limit...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003735
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... in more than one allotropic form can often be considered massive transformations, because all phase changes in pure materials are composition invariant by definition. Figure 1 depicts massively transformed pure iron ( Ref 3 ) and illustrates two important characteristics of massive transformations...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...-stage graphitization. Heat Treating and the strength and ductility of a 1.5Ni-0.3Mo The third step in annealing consists of slow of Austenitic Irons alloyed ductile iron. Austenitizingtemperature was 900 °C cooling through the allotropic transformation (1650 °F). range of the iron; this step is called...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
..., the limited number of slip and twinning systems that can be activated to accommodate imposed deformation of hcp crystals, and the allotropic transformation of titanium from the bcc beta phase (at high temperatures) to the hcp alpha phase (at low temperatures). The first two of these factors play an important...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003140
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... is totally immune.) Consumer Goods Consumer goods has become another significant portion of the titanium market. Titanium golf club heads for drivers occupy the major share of this market. Physical Metallurgy Titanium undergoes an allotropic transformation at about 885 °C (1625 °F), changing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005441
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article presents a comprehensive collection of tables that list fundamental physical constants, standard atomic weights, melting points, atomic size parameters, heats of transition, thermal properties, temperature-dependent allotropic structures, pressure-dependent allotropic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003736
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... result in a significant shape change. Their presence and frequency within the martensite phase is dependent on the alloy system and composition. Martensitic transformations in metallic systems can be grouped into three categories. Allotropic transformations of the solvent atom to create...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
..., the iron is rapidly cooled to 740 °C (1365 °F) prior to entering second-stage graphitization. The third step in the annealing treatment consists of slow cooling through the allotropic transformation range of the iron; this step is called second-stage graphitization (SSG). During SSG, a completely...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...), that is, their structure transforms from one crystal structure to another with changes in temperature and pressure, each unique structure constituting a distinctively separate phase. The term allotropy (existing in another form) is usually used to describe polymorphic changes in chemical elements (see the table 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005882
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... and consequential residual stresses are present in the component. To achieve a hardened layer in steel parts, the layer must be austenitized during heating and transformed to martensite during cooling. The kinetics of this allotropic transformation are described in the preceding section. Computer simulation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... Abstract Similar to the eutectic group of invariant transformations is a group of peritectic reactions, in which a liquid and solid phase decomposes into a solid phase on cooling through the peritectic isotherm. This article describes the equilibrium freezing and nonequilibrium freezing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005969
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... in mind for long, or “weekend,” holding periods. When the carbides are eliminated, the iron is rapidly cooled to 740 °C (1365 °F) prior to entering second-stage graphitization. The third step in the annealing treatment consists of slow cooling through the allotropic transformation range of the iron...