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allotropes

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... Abstract This article presents a table of the crystal structure of allotropic forms of metallic elements in terms of the Pearson symbol, space group, and prototype of the structure. The temperatures of the phase transformations are listed in degree Celsius and the pressures are in GPa...
Image
Published: 31 December 2017
Fig. 1 Eight of the carbon allotropes, or different molecular configurations, of pure carbon. (a) Diamond. (b) Graphite. (c) Lonsdaleite. (d) C 60 (buckminsterfullerene). (e) C 540 . (f) C 70 . (g) Amorphous carbon. (h) Single-walled carbon nanotube. Used under CC-BY-SA-2.5,2.0,1.0. Source More
Image
Published: 01 January 1989
Fig. 2 Crystal structure of diamond (a) and CBN (b) and their allotropes, graphite (c) and hexagonal boron nitride (d) More
Image
Published: 31 August 2017
Fig. 4 Allotropic transitions of quartz More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005441
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article presents a comprehensive collection of tables that list fundamental physical constants, standard atomic weights, melting points, atomic size parameters, heats of transition, thermal properties, temperature-dependent allotropic structures, pressure-dependent allotropic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract This article describes the allotropic modification and atmospheric corrosion of pure tin. Corrosion of pure tin due to oxidation reaction, and reaction with the other gases, water, acids, bases, and other liquid media, is discussed. The article provides information on corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
..., refining, and melting. It also discusses the primary and secondary fabrication of zirconium and hafnium and its alloys. The article talks about the metallurgy of zirconium and its alloys with emphasis on allotropic transformation, cold work and recrystallization, anisotropy and preferred orientation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006367
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... Abstract This article discusses the importance of friction and wear and the role of lubricants in composites. It highlights the progress and developments in using different forms of carbon allotropes in composites for improved friction and wear performance of materials. The article focuses...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... information on the crystal structures and lattice parameters of allotropes of metallic elements. Bravais lattices crystal defects crystal structure metallic elements plastic flow CRYSTAL STRUCTURE, as defined broadly, is the arrangement of atoms or molecules in the solid state. Crystal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article discusses the general characteristics, primary and secondary fabrication methods, product forms, and corrosion resistance of zirconium and hafnium. It describes the physical metallurgy of zirconium and its alloys, providing details on allotropic transformation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... element obviously have the same chemical composition, but each phase is obviously distinct physically due to differences in the bonding and arrangement of atoms. Some pure elements (such as iron and titanium) are also allotropic , which means that the crystal structure of the solid phase changes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001430
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... potential sources of iron contamination be avoided. Steel wire brushes should not be used for interpass cleaning of titanium weldments. Titanium is a single (α) phase material with a hcp crystal structure. However, an allotropic transformation occurs at temperatures above approximately 870 °C (1600 °F...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... precipitation can occur, resulting in additional strengthening. With respect to their effects on the allotropic transformation, alloying elements in titanium are classified by three categories ( Ref 1 ): Alpha stabilizers: Elements, when dissolved in titanium, that tend to stabilize the α phase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...) and uncertain or speculative boundaries are usually shown in phase diagrams as nonsolid lines of various types. The components of metallic systems, which usually are pure elements, are identified in phase diagrams by their symbols. Allotropes of polymorphic elements are distinguished by small (lower-case...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003735
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... in more than one allotropic form can often be considered massive transformations, because all phase changes in pure materials are composition invariant by definition. Figure 1 depicts massively transformed pure iron ( Ref 3 ) and illustrates two important characteristics of massive transformations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
.... The characteristics include the ability to undergo allotropic (that is, microstructural) transformations that allow the opportunity for hardening and strengthening through martensitic and bainitic transformations or precipitation mechanisms in addition to the ability to be readily alloyed with a wide variety...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003116
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... A wide range of forging temperatures can be used for most of the common austenitic types because of the natural workability of austenite and the absence of allotropic transformation. The conventional 18-8 types often are forged at temperatures up to 1260 °C (2300 °F). However, the upper temperature limit...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... results in high eddy-current losses in ac applications. Figure 2 shows the changes in resistivity that result from additions of various elements to iron. Fig. 2 Effect of alloying elements on electrical resistivity of iron Addition of silicon in sufficient amounts eliminates the allotropic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... that create a corrosive environment because of high operating temperatures and high water activity ( Ref 24 ). The primary corrosion reactions are the anodic oxidation of the various allotropic forms of carbon and the dissolution of platinum (probably to form complexed platinum ion, Pt 2+ , in solution...