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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Alkaline cleaning formulas for various metals Table 1 Alkaline cleaning formulas for various metals Constituent Formula, wt%, for cleaning: Aluminum Steel Zinc Immersion Spray Immersion Spray Immersion Spray Sodium hydroxide … … 38 50 … … Sodium carbonate 55...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... True alkaline chemicals include caustic soda or sodium hydroxide (NaOH), caustic potash or potassium hydroxide (KOH), and soda ash or sodium carbonate (Na2CO3). This article reviews alkaline chemicals and provides a basis for a general discussion on various alkaline exposures. It describes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
...Abstract Abstract Etching aluminum can be a pretreatment step for anodizing, chemical conversion coating, metal-to-rubber bonding, and a host of other processes. Chemical etching, using either alkaline or acid solutions, produces a matte finish on aluminum products. This article describes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Cellulose Noncyanide alkaline (c) Stainless steel Titanium Stainless steel Rubber- or vinyl-lined steel Diatomite Cellulose Acid copper sulfate Titanium (d) Teflon (b) Rubber- or vinyl-lined steel Diatomite Cellulose Fluoborate Carbon (d) Teflon (b) Rubber- or vinyl-lined steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... for phosphating and precleaning before alkaline cleaning Water- or water-solvent-based solutions Emulsions of hydrocarbon solvents such as kerosene and water with emulsifiable surfactant Pigmented drawing compounds Unpigmented oil and grease Cutting fluids and chips Faster but less...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... compounds (a) Occasional or intermittent Hot emulsion hand slush, spray emulsion in single stage, vapor slush degrease (b) Boiling alkaline blow off, hand wipe Hot emulsion hand slush, spray emulsion in single stage, hot rinse, hand wipe Hot alkaline soak, hot rinse (hand wipe, if possible...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Pickling, water rinsing, plating, water rinsing, manganese phosphating (not always electrochemical), posttreatment with lime, borax or soaps, water rinsing, drying Conditioning is an alternative term for activation. General formulas of alkaline cleaning products Table 4 General formulas...
Book Chapter

By Mark C. Williams
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003602
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... − 1 2 O 2 + 2H + + 2 e − → H 2 O Alkaline (AFC) H 2 + 2(OH) − → 2H 2 O + 2 e − 1 2 O 2 + H 2 O + 2 e − → 2(OH) − Molten carbonate (MCFC) H 2 + CO 3 2 − → H 2 O + CO 2 + 2 e − CO + CO 3 2 − → 2CO 2 + 2 e − 1 2 O 2...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... The article describes common cleaning processes, including alkaline, electrolytic, solvent, emulsion, molten salt bath, ultrasonic and acid cleaning as well as pickling and abrasive blasting. It also explains how to select the appropriate process for a given soil type and surface composition. abrasive...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract Copper can be electrodeposited from numerous electrolytes. Cyanide and pyrophosphate alkalines, along with sulfate and fluoborate acid baths, are the primary electrolytes used in copper plating. This article provides information on the chemical composition, plating baths...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...-hydrogen 2NiOOH+H 2 ⇌2Ni(OH) 2 Primary (nonrechargeable ) Leclanche dry cell Zn+2MnO 2 →ZnO·Mn 2 O 3 Alkaline Zn+2MnO 2 →ZnO+Mn 2 O 3 Silver-zinc Ag 2 O 2 +2Zn+2H 2 O→2Ag+2Zn(OH) 2 Reuben mercury cell HgO+Zn+H 2 O→Hg+Zn(OH) 2 Zinc-air Zn+O 2 +2H 2 O→2Zn(OH) 2 Lithium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...) Abstract Abstract This article describes the classification of fuel cells depending on the operating temperature and type of electrolytes used. This classification includes alkaline fuel cells, phosphoric acid fuel cells, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), molten carbonate fuel cells...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... factors that cause corrosion on metal artifacts, which include water, temperature fluctuations, pollutants, local conditions of acidity or alkalinity, vegetation, and animals. The corrosion processes experienced by five common metals, such as copper alloys, iron alloys, lead, zinc, and aluminum, used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... aeration, alkalinity, and stray currents. The resistance of lead and lead alloys to corrosion by a wide variety of chemicals is attributed to the polarization of local anodes caused by the formation of a relatively insoluble surface film of lead corrosion products. The article also provides information...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006499
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... the quality of the seal, namely, salt spray, modified dye stain, acid dissolution, impedance, copper accelerated acetic acid salt spray, high-alkaline resistance, SO 2 fog, and clorox tests. aluminum anodizing sealing hot deionized water sealing hot nickel acetate sealing midtemperature sealing...
Book Chapter

By A. Sato
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001248
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Abstract Abstract Commercial zinc plating is accomplished by a number of distinctively different systems: cyanide baths, alkaline noncyanide baths, and acid chloride baths. This article focuses on the composition, advantages, disadvantages, operating parameters, and applications of each...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Abstract Abstract A tin deposit provides sacrificial protection to copper, nickel, and many other nonferrous metals and alloys. Tin also provides good protection to steel. Tin can be deposited from either alkaline or acid electrolytes. This article explains the compositions and operating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., and coating of aluminum. These include abrasive blast cleaning, barrel finishing, polishing, buffing, satin finishing, chemical cleaning, chemical brightening, electrolytic brightening, chemical etching, alkaline etching, acid etching, chemical conversion coating, electroplating, immersion plating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... This article provides an overview of the various types of stainless steels and describes the commonly used cleaning methods, namely, alkaline cleaning, emulsion cleaning, solvent cleaning, vapor degreasing, ultrasonic cleaning, and acid cleaning. Finishing operations of stainless steels, such as grinding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
..., moisture content in concrete, and acidity/alkalinity of the surface. The article provides information on the industry standards for assessing surface cleanliness. It details postcoating application quality requirements, including measuring of dry-film thickness, assessing intercoat cleanliness, verifying...