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alkalinity

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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 3 Amount of calcium in equilibrium with calcite at alkalinity values of 5 and 30 as a function of pH. This is a graphic interpretation of the Langelier saturation index. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Alkaline cleaning is a commonly used method for removing a wide variety of soils from the surface of metals. This article focuses on the composition, operating conditions, and test and control of alkaline cleaners, as well as equipment used and their application methods. It describes...
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Published: 30 September 2015
Fig. 7 Alkaline silicates. Source: Ref 20 More
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 17 Useful life of plain and alloyed cast irons in acid alkaline media as a function of temperature and concentration of the corrodents. (a) Sulfuric acid. (b) Nitric acid. (c) Hydrochloric acid. (d) Sodium hydroxide More
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Published: 15 December 2019
Fig. 5 Isocratic separation of the ammonium ion, alkali metal cations, and alkaline earth cations with the IonPac (Thermo Fisher Scientific) CS12A column. Column dimensions: 4 mm ID by 250 mm; eluent: 18 mM methanesulfonic acid; flow rate: 1 mL/min; injection volume: 25 μL; temperature: 24 °C More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 8 Relationship between threshold chloride concentration and pH of alkaline solution More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 5 Aluminum corrosion rates in acidic and alkaline environments at various temperatures and flow rates. Source: Ref 46 More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 19 High-carbon tool steel etched with boiling alkaline sodium picrate to color the cementite. Note the lighter-colored carbides in the segregation streak. These probably contain a small amount of molybdenum, present in this steel. More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 17 Same as in Fig. 16 but after etching with hot alkaline sodium picrate. C, eutectic cementite; L, ledeburite; F, ferrite; and P, pearlite with slightly etched cementite. 650× (microscopic magnification 500×) More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 24 Same as in Fig. 23 but after etching with hot alkaline sodium picrate. C, cementite; F, ferrite (unaffected); IP, iron phosphide + ferrite; and TiN, titanium nitride. 1300× (microscopic magnification 1000×) More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 30 Same as in Fig. 29 but after etching with hot alkaline sodium picrate and 4% nital. Pearlitic matrix is revealed; phosphorous eutectic is unaffected. 500× More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 6 AISI W2 (1.05% C), spheroidize annealed. (a) Etched with boiling alkaline sodium picrate for 60 s to color the cementite brown. (b) Etched lightly with 4% picral and tint etched with Beraha's Na 2 S 2 O 3 /K 2 S 2 O 5 reagent to color the ferrite (wide range of colors). (c) Etched More
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Published: 31 August 2017
Fig. 21 Same as in Fig. 20 but after etching with hot alkaline sodium picrate. L, ledeburite; C, eutectic cementite; F, ferrite; and P, pearlite with slightly etched cementite. Original magnification: 650× (microscopic magnification: 500×) More
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Published: 31 August 2017
Fig. 28 Same as in Fig. 27 but after etching with hot alkaline sodium picrate. F, ferrite (unaffected); C, cementite; IP, iron phosphide + ferrite; and TiN, titanium nitride. Original magnification: 1300× (microscopic magnification: 1000×) More
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Published: 31 August 2017
Fig. 34 Same as in Fig. 33 but after etching with hot alkaline sodium picrate and 4% nital. Pearlitic matrix is revealed; phosphorus eutectic is unaffected. Original magnification: 500× More
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Published: 31 August 2017
Fig. 2 Useful life of plain and alloyed cast irons in acid alkaline media as a function of temperature and concentration of the corrodents. (a) Sulfuric acid. (b) Nitric acid. (c) Hydrochloric acid. (d) Sodium hydroxide More
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Published: 31 August 2017
Fig. 58 Useful life of plain and alloyed cast irons in acid alkaline media as a function of temperature and concentration of the corrodents. (a) Sulfuric acid. (b) Nitric acid. (c) Hydrochloric acid. (d) Sodium hydroxide More
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Published: 01 January 1994
Fig. 1 Cathode current efficiency of alkaline noncyanide zinc baths as related to zinc metal contents. NaOH, 80 g/L (11 oz/gal); Na 2 CO 3 , 15 g/L (2 oz/gal) More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... Abstract Etching aluminum can be a pretreatment step for anodizing, chemical conversion coating, metal-to-rubber bonding, and a host of other processes. Chemical etching, using either alkaline or acid solutions, produces a matte finish on aluminum products. This article describes the alkaline...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Abstract True alkaline chemicals include caustic soda or sodium hydroxide (NaOH), caustic potash or potassium hydroxide (KOH), and soda ash or sodium carbonate (Na2CO3). This article reviews alkaline chemicals and provides a basis for a general discussion on various alkaline exposures...