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alkaline electrolytes

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... or rechargeable batteries. Fuel cells are classified into five types: phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC), solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell, alkaline electrolyte fuel cell, molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), and solid oxide fuel cell. The article presents reactions that occur during charging and discharging...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... The article describes common cleaning processes, including alkaline, electrolytic, solvent, emulsion, molten salt bath, ultrasonic and acid cleaning as well as pickling and abrasive blasting. It also explains how to select the appropriate process for a given soil type and surface composition. abrasive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Abstract Abstract A tin deposit provides sacrificial protection to copper, nickel, and many other nonferrous metals and alloys. Tin also provides good protection to steel. Tin can be deposited from either alkaline or acid electrolytes. This article explains the compositions and operating...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract Copper can be electrodeposited from numerous electrolytes. Cyanide and pyrophosphate alkalines, along with sulfate and fluoborate acid baths, are the primary electrolytes used in copper plating. This article provides information on the chemical composition, plating baths...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the classification of fuel cells depending on the operating temperature and type of electrolytes used. This classification includes alkaline fuel cells, phosphoric acid fuel cells, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), molten carbonate fuel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... or flame jet cleaning, abrasive blasting, and tumbling. Solvent cleaning, emulsion cleaning, alkaline cleaning, acid cleaning, pickling, and descaling are chemical cleaning methods. The electrochemical cleaning methods include electropolishing, electrolytic alkaline cleaning, and electrolytic pickling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Abstract Abstract This article provides a detailed account of the various alkaline and acid plating baths used for electrolytic copper plating. Dilute cyanide and Rochelle cyanide baths, high-efficiency sodium and potassium cyanide baths, alkaline noncyanide copper plating baths, and alkaline...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... and lapping compounds from magnetic particle and fluorescent penetrant inspection. The cleaning processes include emulsion cleaning, electrolytic alkaline cleaning, acid cleaning, solvent cleaning, vapor degreasing, alkaline cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, and glass bead cleaning. The article provides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001269
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Abstract Abstract This article focuses on the various techniques for removing contaminants in the surface preparation of steel for hot-dip coatings: wet cleaning methods, including alkaline cleaning, electrolytic cleaning, chemical pickling, and electrolytic pickling; flame cleaning and furnace...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., and coating of aluminum. These include abrasive blast cleaning, barrel finishing, polishing, buffing, satin finishing, chemical cleaning, chemical brightening, electrolytic brightening, chemical etching, alkaline etching, acid etching, chemical conversion coating, electroplating, immersion plating...
Book Chapter

By Mark C. Williams
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003602
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the ideal performance of various low-temperature and high-temperature fuel cells that depends on the electrochemical reactions that occur between different fuels and oxygen. Low-temperature fuel cells, such as polymer electrolyte, alkaline...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... A proper ventilation system should be installed in the room for solvent cleaning. Electrolytic Cleaning Two common methods for cleaning molybdenum and tungsten are acid electrolyte (aqueous solution of 5 to 50 vol% concentrated HF, using 5 V, 60 Hz alternating current) and alkaline electrolyte...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... or electrolytic cleaning. Precleaning reduces the contamination of the alkaline solution, extending the life of the solution. Electrolytic Alkaline Cleaning Electrolytic alkaline cleaning is the most reliable method for cleaning parts for plating. The work is the cathode, and steel electrodes...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... chlorate, nor sodium nitrate machine tungsten. For tungsten, one must use alkaline electrolytes such as sodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide. Sodium chloride is also an extremely corrosive electrolyte and thus can be very damaging to the machinery or workpiece. The electrolyte salts used most often...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003748
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... HF, 87 mL HNO 3 Zirconium(h) 9–12 1–10 min (rr) VI-25 980 mL saturated solution of KI (potassium iodide) in distilled H 2 O, 20 mL HCl Bismuth 7 30 s (ss) Group VII: Alkaline electrolytes VII-1 Water to make 1000 mL, 80 g KCN (potassium cyanide), 40 g K 2 CO 3 (potassium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003596
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... used in ECM are classified in three categories: neutral salt, alkaline, and acidic. Each type has its own merits. Sludging Electrolytes Sludging electrolytes produce hydroxide sludges that must be removed before recycling. Sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions are the most commonly used electrolytes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... when used anodically. Sulfuric acid baths are most commonly electrolyzed ( Table 1 ) and are usually used as a final cleaner before plating. All grease and oil should be removed before electrolytic cleaning, to reduce contaminating of the electrolytic bath. If alkaline cleaners are used as precleaners...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001261
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Abstract Abstract Selective plating, also known as brush plating, differs from traditional tank or bath plating in that the workpiece is not immersed in a plating solution (electrolyte). Instead, the electrolyte is brought to the part and applied by a handheld anode or stylus, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... metal onto an electrically conducting surface. This is done by application of an electrical potential, or voltage, between two electrodes that are immersed in an electrolyte solution containing the metal ions to be plated. The anode is the positively charged electrode, and the cathode (surface being...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006491
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... and preparation of the surface are thus essential to obtain uniform coverage, eliminate surface contaminants, and generate an active surface. Electrolytic potentials of several common metals and those of pure aluminum in a 6% sodium chloride solution Table 1 Electrolytic potentials of several common metals...