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alkaline baths

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Book Chapter

By Nabil Zaki
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...) 110–130 (15–17) Potassium chloride, g/L (oz/gal) 200–250 (27–33) Ammonium chloride (a) , g/L (oz/gal) 100–200 (13–27) Organic additives, g/L (oz/gal) (a) 5–10 (0.66–1.3) pH 5–6 Anodes Zinc and nickel connected to two separate rectifiers Alkaline baths Sodium hydroxide, g/L...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... noncyanide copper plating baths Table 2 Concentration limits and operating conditions of alkaline noncyanide copper plating baths Constituent or condition Typical Copper metal (from copper sulfate) concentration limit, g/L (oz/gal) 6–13.5 (0.8–1.8) pH, electrometric 9.0–10.5...
Book Chapter

By A. Sato
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001248
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Abstract Abstract Commercial zinc plating is accomplished by a number of distinctively different systems: cyanide baths, alkaline noncyanide baths, and acid chloride baths. This article focuses on the composition, advantages, disadvantages, operating parameters, and applications of each...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Copper can be electrodeposited from numerous electrolytes. Cyanide and pyrophosphate alkalines, along with sulfate and fluoborate acid baths, are the primary electrolytes used in copper plating. This article provides information on the chemical composition, plating baths, and operating...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract Copper can be electrodeposited from numerous electrolytes. Cyanide and pyrophosphate alkalines, along with sulfate and fluoborate acid baths, are the primary electrolytes used in copper plating. This article provides information on the chemical composition, plating baths...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Gravimetric Analysis Chemical Analysis Structure and Morphology Coverage Thermal Analysis Alkaline Resistance Spray Treatment Immersion Treatment Materials Removal of Sludge and Scale Solution Heating and Mixing Replenishment Chemical Analysis and Bath Control Basic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... The article describes common cleaning processes, including alkaline, electrolytic, solvent, emulsion, molten salt bath, ultrasonic and acid cleaning as well as pickling and abrasive blasting. It also explains how to select the appropriate process for a given soil type and surface composition. abrasive...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... describes common cleaning processes, including alkaline, electrolytic, solvent, emulsion, molten salt bath, ultrasonic and acid cleaning as well as pickling and abrasive blasting. It also explains how to select the appropriate process for a given soil type and surface composition. abrasive blast...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001266
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... substrates. For example, degradation of polyimide substrates will occur in very alkaline baths. Alumina-ceramic substrates are also incompatible with highly alkaline systems, and they should be treated in electroless gold baths operating at neutral pH (such as sulfite gold baths, which have a pH of 8.0...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... by additions Use General Current 162–216 A/m 2 (15–20 A/ft 2 ) pH High Notes: (1) Because insoluble anodes are used, it is necessary to replace the indium metal content of this alkaline bath. Under normal conditions, addition of cyanide will not be required; however, it is best to keep...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... not removed by an emulsion cleaner usually are sufficiently softened that they are easily removed in the alkaline spray wash that normally follows. The principal disadvantage of emulsion cleaners is the danger of carryover of hydrocarbon solvent into plating baths ( Ref 5 ). Consequently, it is extremely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Supercritical Fluid (SCF) Cleaning Ultrasonic Cleaning Pickling Salt Bath Descaling Alkaline Descaling Electrolytic Alkaline Cleaning Electrolytic Pickling Surface Contaminants on Heat Treated Parts Cleaning Methods Cleanliness Measurement How Clean Is Clean? Case Studies...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... is applied between busbar and tank to obtain a current density on the work of between 2 and 5 A/dm 2 (20 to 50 A/ft 2 ) of surface. Generally, the use of electrolysis allows more latitude in the temperature of the alkaline bath, but the hotter the solution, the more efficient the cleaning. Tenacious oil...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., especially when the temperature of the bath exceeds 80 °C (180 °F). However, lower operating temperatures decrease the efficiency of the solution for the removal of certain soils. Silicated alkaline cleaners are available that are used at 50 to 60 °C (120 to 140 °F) to reduce energy consumption...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Bath Descaling Alkaline Descaling Acid Cleaning Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 Example 4 Example 5 Hot Stripping Cold Stripping Water-Break Test Nielson Method Atomizer Test Fluorescent Method Weight of Residual Soil Wiping Method Residual Pattern Method...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001310
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... engine brackets, die cast Wet bowl abraded, no additional finishing Automotive interior brackets, die cast Chopped aluminum wire blast Automotive valve/cam covers, die cast Wet abraded, alkaline cleaned, iron phosphate treated, electrostatic powder coated (acrylic, polyester, or epoxy-polyester...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...% perchloroethylene, and baked again for 1 2 to 2 h. After being pickled in acid, the part can be plated in the conventional manner, preferably in an alkaline bath. Before being impregnated with oil, the parts are heated in a vapor degreaser and, while hot, immersed in cold oil. After cooling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... coatings in this environment; however, these are normally satisfied by hot-dipped or sprayed coatings. Source: Ref 11 Alkaline cyanide cadmium plating baths Table 8 Alkaline cyanide cadmium plating baths Total NaCN- to-Cd ratio Concentration, g/L (oz/gal) Cd CdO NaCN NaOH Na 2 CO...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Conventional anodizing processes Table 1 Conventional anodizing processes Bath Amount, wt% Temperature Duration, min Voltage, V Current density Film thickness Appearance properties Other properties °C °F A/dm 2 A/ft 2 μm mils Sulfuric acid bath Sulfuric acid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001272
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...) Acid solutions F P F E E P F G G G F E F E G Alkaline solutions P P P E E P P F G G P G P E E Note: Paint and film characteristics may show differences because of variations in paint formulations; therefore, all indications are relative. (a) B, mainly by brush...