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air-coupled ultrasonic testing

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... Hopkinson ( Ref 1 ) introduced a machine capable of 116 Hz. In 1925, Jenkin ( Ref 2 ) tested wires of copper, iron, and steel at 2 kHz, using similar techniques. In 1929, Jenkin and Lehmann ( Ref 3 ) were able to test materials up to 10 kHz using a pulsating air resonance system. Mason ( Ref 4 ) achieved...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Abstract This article introduces the principal methodologies and some technologies that are being applied for nondestructive evaluation of composite materials. These include ultrasonic testing (UT), air-coupled UT, laser UT, ultrasonic spectroscopy, leaky lamb wave method, acousto...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006471
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Applications” in this Volume. Improvements in both the performance of piezoelectric materials, matching, and electronics have facilitated opportunities to use air and high-pressure gas-coupled ultrasonics ( Ref 1 , 9 ). Air-coupled ultrasonics has, over a number of years, seen some applications with low...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... resolution. Fig. 3 Oscilloscope displays using ultrasonic transducers of (a) high and low penetration (ability to detect defects at distances within the solid), and (b) high and low resolution (ability to separate echoes from closely-spaced defects) Air is a poor transmitter of sound waves at...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... provides information on the dimension-measurement applications of ultrasonic inspection methods. ultrasonic imaging inspection area-amplitude blocks distance-amplitude blocks calibration defects WHEN ULTRASONIC NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING (NDT) was first applied, it was a workmanship standard and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006470
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... interpretation, automation, rapid scanning, in-line production monitoring, and process control. Some of the coupling requirements can be overcome, in some cases, by using gas/air-coupled, laser, and electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) ultrasonics, which are all addressed in articles on transduction. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., knife blades, sintered filters Buffing and polishing compounds; miscellaneous machining, shop, and other soils Chlorinated-solvent degreaser (inhibited trichloroethylene, for example) Aluminum and zinc Castings, open-mesh air filters, used automotive carburetor parts, valves, switch components...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
.... , Miniature Drumheads: Microfabricated Ultrasonic Transducers , Ultrasonics , Vol 36 , 1998 , p 25 – 29 10.1016/S0041-624X(97)00134-0 13. Khuri-Yakub B. , Air Coupled Transducers , Ultrasonic Testing , Vol 7 , Nondestructive Testing Handbook , 2nd ed. , Birks A.S. and Green...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Mixing in Photorefractive Polymers , Opt. Commun. , Vol 162 , 1999 , p 79 – 84 10.1016/S0030-4018(99)00023-1 16. Chakrapani S.K. , Dayal V. , and Barnard D. , Detection and Characterization of Waviness in Unidirectional GFRP Using Rayleigh Wave Air Coupled Ultrasonic Testing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the mean, independent of crack size ( Fig. 2 ). Fig. 2 Illustration of the linear relationship observed between nondestructive testing signal magnitude and crack size in automated eddy-current bolt-hole inspections by the United States Air Force. POD, probability of detection In general...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract This article describes testing and characterization methods of ceramics for chemical analysis, phase analysis, microstructural analysis, macroscopic property characterization, strength and proof testing, thermophysical property testing, and nondestructive evaluation techniques...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... progresses when adhered particles are removed from a surface. When adhered particles are removed from the surface, they may react with air or other corrosive environments. Affected surfaces show pits or grooves with surrounding corrosion products. The movement is usually the result of external vibration...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... behavior of structural alloys in the liquid metal environments is sometimes necessary. Generally, liquid metals react (in some cases, quite violently) with air and/or water vapor; therefore, testing systems must be designed to exclude both air and water. Three basic designs have been developed to expose...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005730
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... of a thermal spray coating, to select the most appropriate coating, or to predict the life of a coating for a specific application. These have ranged across the spectrum of applications and industries, including gas turbines, air frames, nuclear reactors, ship components, oil and gas, primary metals...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... regions of a wear mechanism as a function of the operational parameters. Fig. 20 Wear mapping graph of sliding ceramic pairs in dry air (ball-on-three flats, Ø ball = 12.7 mm, or 0.5 in.) indicating transition lines from mild to severe wear and the distinct regions One of the basic purposes...
Book Chapter

By Peter J. Blau
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... been used successfully. Rub lightly with a cotton swab saturated with acetone, then ultrasonically clean in methanol for 60 s, and dry with a hot air blower. Use a good grade of nonspotting laboratory glass cleaner, rinse in hot water, and hot air dry. Because oxidation, tarnishing, and/or...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... metal is heated to 1250 K (1790 °F) in the open air with sulfur-containing gases, p SO 2 + p S 2 + p O 2 ≈ 0.2 atm. The situation is shown by the dashed line in Fig. 2 labeled “ p = 0.2 atm.” Isothermal stability diagrams for oxidation of many important...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
...-temperature testing in air would induce the surface related factor of oxidation. Seldom are surface-related effects of this nature beneficial to fatigue resistance. Table 4 Significant variables affecting fatigue resistance Bulk property effects Degree of cold working and/or annealing Heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003330
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... test procedures must rigorously follow documented specifications. Sample sizes are statistically specified, but reduced levels are often allowed to control costs once production history is demonstrated to be consistent. Quality control tests usually characterize a couple of the most critical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... Abstract The article provides a discussion on the parameters influencing abrasive wear and the elements and standards of abrasion wear tests. It emphasizes the general test procedures, advantages, and limitations of various types of abrasive wear testing. Wear testing for scratch wear, dry...