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air-coupled ultrasonic testing

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
.... In 1925, Jenkin ( Ref 2 ) tested wires of copper, iron, and steel at 2 kHz, using similar techniques. In 1929, Jenkin and Lehmann ( Ref 3 ) were able to test materials up to 10 kHz using a pulsating air resonance system. Mason ( Ref 4 ) achieved ultrasonic frequency (20 kHz) in 1950 with the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Abstract This article introduces the principal methodologies and some technologies that are being applied for nondestructive evaluation of composite materials. These include ultrasonic testing (UT), air-coupled UT, laser UT, ultrasonic spectroscopy, leaky lamb wave method, acousto-ultrasonics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006471
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Applications” in this Volume. Improvements in both the performance of piezoelectric materials, matching, and electronics have facilitated opportunities to use air and high-pressure gas-coupled ultrasonics ( Ref 1 , 9 ). Air-coupled ultrasonics has, over a number of years, seen some applications with low...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... resolution. Fig. 3 Oscilloscope displays using ultrasonic transducers of (a) high and low penetration (ability to detect defects at distances within the solid), and (b) high and low resolution (ability to separate echoes from closely-spaced defects) Air is a poor transmitter of sound waves at...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... provides information on the dimension-measurement applications of ultrasonic inspection methods. ultrasonic imaging inspection area-amplitude blocks distance-amplitude blocks calibration defects WHEN ULTRASONIC NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING (NDT) was first applied, it was a workmanship standard and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006470
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... method in its various implementations suitable for data digitization, immediate interpretation, automation, rapid scanning, in-line production monitoring, and process control. Some of the coupling requirements can be overcome, in some cases, by using gas/air-coupled, laser, and electromagnetic acoustic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... polishing compounds; miscellaneous machining, shop, and other soils Chlorinated-solvent degreaser (inhibited trichloroethylene, for example) Aluminum and zinc Castings, open-mesh air filters, used automotive carburetor parts, valves, switch components, drawn wire Chips, lubricants, and general grime...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... beneficial to inspect some types of composite materials without contacting the surface with water or other coupling liquid used in the standard ultrasonic inspection system approach. One method to accomplish this is with air-coupled ultrasonic testing (UT). The technique can be used very effectively on...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... inspection of highly attenuative materials. Noncontact scanning capability (air-coupled ultrasonic testing) Transducers are expensive; poor signal-to-noise ratio in certain applications 16 – 18 Electromagnetic acoustic transducer Line/cylindrical/other, depending on design Noncontact scanning...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... normally distributed around the mean, independent of crack size ( Fig. 2 ). Fig. 2 Illustration of the linear relationship observed between nondestructive testing signal magnitude and crack size in automated eddy-current bolt-hole inspections by the United States Air Force. POD, probability of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... is higher in dry air than in saturated air. Temperature . The effect of elevated temperature on fretting depends on the oxidation characteristics of the material. The effects of these factors are discussed in more detail in Ref 30 and 31 . The article “Fretting Fatigue Testing” in this...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract This article describes testing and characterization methods of ceramics for chemical analysis, phase analysis, microstructural analysis, macroscopic property characterization, strength and proof testing, thermophysical property testing, and nondestructive evaluation techniques...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
..., knowledge of the fatigue crack propagation behavior of structural alloys in the liquid metal environments is sometimes necessary. Generally, liquid metals react (in some cases, quite violently) with air and/or water vapor; therefore, testing systems must be designed to exclude both air and water. Three...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... graph of sliding ceramic pairs in dry air (ball-on-three flats, Ø ball = 12.7 mm, or 0.5 in.) indicating transition lines from mild to severe wear and the distinct regions One of the basic purposes of tribodata is to assess or estimate the reliability of a tribosystem. Reliability describes the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005730
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... appropriate coating, or to predict the life of a coating for a specific application. These have ranged across the spectrum of applications and industries, including gas turbines, air frames, nuclear reactors, ship components, oil and gas, primary metals, and prosthetic devices. Some are considered proprietary...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... fatigue testing machine Fig. 7 Schematic of an ultrasonic (920 kHz) fatigue testing machine with mean load capability. 1, converter; 2, booster horn; 3, connecting horn; 4, specimen; 5, capacitance gage; 6, cooling ring; 7, four air inlets; 8, venturi air cooler; 9, air supply; 10, upper and...
Book Chapter

By Peter J. Blau
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... been used successfully. Rub lightly with a cotton swab saturated with acetone, then ultrasonically clean in methanol for 60 s, and dry with a hot air blower. Use a good grade of nonspotting laboratory glass cleaner, rinse in hot water, and hot air dry. Because oxidation, tarnishing, and/or...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... metal is heated to 1250 K (1790 °F) in the open air with sulfur-containing gases, p SO 2 + p S 2 + p O 2 ≈ 0.2 atm. The situation is shown by the dashed line in Fig. 2 labeled “ p = 0.2 atm.” Isothermal stability diagrams for oxidation of many important...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... loosely adherent wear debris, rinsed in some manner to remove surface contamination, and then air dried or stored in a vacuum desiccator before weighing. At some point in the analytical investigation of the wear properties of the material, the density of the material should be determined using standard...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003330
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... test procedures must rigorously follow documented specifications. Sample sizes are statistically specified, but reduced levels are often allowed to control costs once production history is demonstrated to be consistent. Quality control tests usually characterize a couple of the most critical...