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air-cooled condensers

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004152
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Abstract This article addresses the major heat-transfer components of the water-steam loop of a power plant. It describes the various types of condensers, including water-cooled condensers and air-cooled condensers. The article explains the corrosion mechanisms encountered in the condensers...
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Published: 30 September 2015
Fig. 20 Condensation of interior conditioned air on roof joists that have been cooled by outside air entering the wall through breaches in the air barrier, in schematic form and in a photograph More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Abstract Dew-point corrosion occurs when gas is cooled below the saturation temperature pertinent to the concentration of condensable species contained by a gas. This article discusses dew-point corrosion problems in the susceptible areas of dry flue gas handling systems. The corrosion problems...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005851
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... fans at this Minnesota foundry supply extra plant ventilation to reduce the humidity inside the plant. Refrigerant Chillers Refrigerant chillers cool by mechanical refrigeration principals. Air- or water-cooled condensers are available with non-ozone-depleting refrigerant ( Fig. 17...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... and a cooling zone near the top. Sufficient heat is introduced into the sump to boil the solvent and generate hot solvent vapor. Because the hot vapor is heavier than air, it displaces the air and fills the tank up to the cooling zone. The hot vapor is condensed when it reaches the cooling zone, thus...
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Published: 01 January 2005
by condensed acid that occurred whenever the flue gas cooled below the acid dewpoint temperature. On-site temperature surveys revealed that the cell operated at ∼120 °C (250 °F) (acid dewpoint), with cooling periods where the metal reached the water dewpoint temperature (∼45–50 °C or 110–120 °F); corrosion More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004150
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... exhaust; the condensate is then recycled to the boiler. This called the Rankine cycle. The steam is the working fluid, and this is an example of an indirect working fluid. A gas turbine (also called a combustion turbine) is generally a direct cycle; air is compressed by a turbine; at the exit...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006871
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... [300–400 nm] = 50 W/m 2 ). See Ref 22 , 23 In addition to UV, visible, and IR radiation, xenon arc lamps also emit a great deal of heat. The lamps must be cooled in order to avoid or at least minimize overheating that would damage them. This is done using either a stream of air or a flow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
.... Temperature and atmospheric composition primarily affect the external surfaces of the plant and plant equipment, causing corrosion that must be repaired periodically. Cooling Water The quality of water used to cool shell and tube heat exchangers can vary from season to season and year to year...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
..., computer systems, water cooling systems, fixtures and machines, air-operated or pneumatic devices, coils, and quench systems. It also presents simple rules that need to be applied while moving the equipment from one location to another. fixtures hardness test equipment hardness testing induction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... the cooling-zone bed temperature above the saturation temperature of the fluidizing gas. An alternative is to use ambient air as the cooling fluid, although air has a smaller cooling capacity than water, or use a dry fluidizing gas to avoid the condensation. Bed Surface Spray Cooling Spray cooling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004160
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... at this time due to the designed prestressing of large shrink fits. Condensation and resulting moisture on the rings should be prevented by turning on the strip heaters in air-cooled machines, or if the rotor is out of the stator, enclosing it in a tarp with some heaters or lamps underneath sufficient...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and was cooled by water flowing through the tubes. Although sanitary well water was generally used, treated recirculating water was also available and was sometimes used in the heat exchanger. Water vapor in the air was condensed on the tube surfaces during the cooling process. The pH of this condensate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
.... Table 2 and 3 show the results of cyclic oxidation (25 min of heat followed by 5 min of ambient air cooling) exposure at 815 °C (1500 °F) and 900 °C (1650 °F) in a natural-gas-fired atmosphere on several of the more standard exhaust hot end materials. The 316Ti alloy is a flexible coupling alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... was condensed on the tube surfaces during the cooling process. The pH of this condensate was approximately 4.5. Air flow over the tubes reversed direction every 585 mm (23 in.) as a result of baffling placed in the heat exchangers. The tubes were 19 mm ( 3 4 in.) in diameter with a wall thickness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005955
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... to keep condensation of the water vapor to a minimum, the oil must be kept hot enough without reducing the viscosity of the oil. At times, the addition of dry air into the pump near the exhaust valve (termed gas ballasting ) is used to help reduce the partial pressure of water vapor and prevent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... been experienced immediately after chemical cleanings and initial start-ups. Copper alloys, specifically brasses, are susceptible to SCC. Most steamside failures have occurred where high concentrations of ammonia and oxygen exist such as in the air-removal section of the condenser. Stress-corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005928
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... be rapidly cooled after forming. The use of a multipass air-cooling system is suggested for this purpose rather than a water-cooling system, because a water leak could badly contaminate the generated gas. Fig. 7 Variation in the relationship between dewpoint and carbon dioxide in the generation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., composition of fuel, amount of excess combustion air, type and amount of water-conditioning chemicals added, type and amount of contaminants in condensate and make-up feedwater, frequency and methods of cleaning fire-side and water-side surfaces of steam generators, materials specified as to alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
..., fire resistance need not be considered for cooling-water or instrument-air systems. Although petrochemical plants may include some processes that involve nonflammable or nonhazardous streams, most equipment must be resistant to fires. For example, lack of fire resistance rules out the use...