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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
...Abstract Abstract Quenchant agitation can be obtained by circulating quenchant in a quench tank through pumps and impellers. The selection of the agitation method depends on the tank design, type and volume of the quenchant, part design, and the severity of quench required. This article...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... used techniques in quench tank agitation to establish uniformity of the quenched part. Common techniques include quenchant stirring, quenchant circulation, and submerged jet/spray mixing. The article also describes the effect of quenching agitation and reviews heat-transfer characteristics of immersion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
..., which can be controlled by proper racking. It concludes with information on agitation and the quench tank system used in the quenching of aluminum alloys. agitation system aluminum alloys cooling rate immersion water quenching polyalkylene glycol polymer quenchants quench sensitivity quench...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006088
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
...-type blenders, and low-shear agitated-type blenders used for blending and premixing solids. References References 1. Fisher J.J. , Solid-Blending , Chem. Eng. , 1960 , p 107 – 128 2. Campbell H. and Bauer W.C. , Cause and Cure of Demixing in Solids-Solids Mixers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001266
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... technique, describing the advantages and limitations, applications, and properties of plated deposits. It also reviews process variables of the technique, including gold concentration, reducing agent, agitation, and contaminants. References References 1. Mallory G.O. and Hajdu J.B...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005862
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... in a vigorously agitated bath at a temperature of 40 °C (105 °F) Fig. 22 Effect of agitation (m/s, or ft/min) on cooling rate for 25 mm (1 in.) diameter stainless steel probe quenched in 20% polyalkylene glycol at 45 °C (110 °F) Fig. 23 Variation in Grossmann hardenability factor ( H...
Book Chapter

By J.R. Keough
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... and operation of salt quenching including considerations of time, temperature, environment, and safety, as well as critical characteristics such as the composition of the quenchant, agitation, and water additions. chemical analysis environmental safety salt quenching THE USE OF MOLTEN SALTS...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
...Abstract Abstract Quenching severity is agitation-dependent and therefore, magnitude and turbulence of fluid flow around a part in the quench zone are critically important relative to the uniformity of heat transfer throughout the quenching process. This article provides an overview...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005802
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Variable Equipment requirements Capacity of quench tank, L (gal) 18,925 (5000) Type of oil Mineral oil (viscosity at 99 °C, or 210 °F; 110 SUS) Temperature of oil, °C (°F) 190 (375) Agitation High and low, as required Equipment requirements for oil martempering carburized parts...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Fig. 1 Binary phase diagram for the system ZnCl 2 /NH 4 CL Fig. 2 The Gircast process Abstract Abstract This article describes the control of alloy composition and impurity levels in die casting of zinc alloys based on agitation, use of foundry scrap, and melt temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006506
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
..., such as: The heat-extracting potential of the quenching fluid in the quiescent state at normal fluid temperatures and pressures (standard conditions) Changes in the heat-extracting potential of the fluid brought about by nonstandard conditions of agitation, temperature, or pressure Product thickness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Tanks Barrels Anodes Anode Bags Brightness Adhesion Porosity Blistering Roughness Solderability Hardness Leveling Current Density Impurities Purity of Water Used in Composition Agitation Dilute Cyanide and Rochelle Cyanide Baths High-Efficiency Sodium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... Insufficient solution agitation Check circulating pump. Rough deposits Particles (anode sludge, dirt) in solution Check filter for proper operating condition. Replace cartridge. Excessive current setting Check and adjust. Insufficient solution agitation Check circulation. Alloy composition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... from top figures: (c) normal quench and (d) delayed quench. Z , incubation period (in seconds) Fig. 1 Results of quenching tests using the Temperature Gradient Quenching Analysis System method and the Liščić/Nanmac probe. Quenchants are mineral oil at 20 °C without agitation and 25% poly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... the steel composition or the agitation, quenchant temperature, or the quenching medium. The design of the quenching system and the thoroughness with which the system is maintained contribute to the success of the process. Part design also contributes to the mechanical properties and distortion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... quenching media Agitation Air Oil Water Brine No circulation 0.02 0.25–0.30 0.9–1.0 2 Mild circulation … 0.30–0.35 1.0–1.1 2.0–2.2 Moderate circulation … 0.35–0.40 1.2–1.3 … Good circulation … 0.40–0.50 1.4–1.5 … Strong circulation 0.05 0.5–0.8 1.6–2.0...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... of the same size and/or weight, it would be simple to obtain the desired hardness ( Ref 1 ). In practice, however, such conditions rarely exist. Workpiece configuration, cooling power of the quenching medium, temperature of the quenching medium, and degree of agitation are the principal variables that must...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Filters VIM Refinement Process Trace Element Removal Nitrogen Degassing Hydrogen Degassing Deoxidation Vacuum Induction Degassing and Pouring (VIDP) Furnace Melting Bath Agitation Apart from melting high-grade steels and superalloys, VIM is being increasingly used for the ction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Bath agitation Growth rate (μm/h) λNi/λCu Reference Nickel pulse: 90 mA/cm 2 for ≈0.7 s 60 rpm 3 “Rest” pulse: 0 mA/cm 2 for 0.25 to 1 s ≈7 ≈10 Copper pulse: 1.5 mA/cm 2 for ≈4 s 600 rpm Nickel pulse: 12–20 mA/cm 2 for ≈0.5 s None 5 “Rest” pulse: 0 mA/cm 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...-purpose 1–5 10–71 50–160 1 2 –3 General-purpose 2–5 10–77 50–170 1 2 –3 Light cleaning 1–2 10–71 50–160 1–3 Diphase 2–5 10–77 50–170 1 2 –3 (a) Requires vigorous agitation. (b) Water-in-solvent emulsion, 15 to 25% water in kerosine...