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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006262
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... reaging tment with each step conducted immediately after one another Fig. 3 Temperature-time profile of production retrogression and reaging treatment with each step conducted separately Abstract Retrogression and reaging (RRA) is an established form of postquench aging heat treatment...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...) Artificially aged in laboratory from T4 to T6 Table 1(c) Typical solution and precipitation heat treatments for heat-treatable Zn-Mg aluminum alloys from the 7 xxx series Alloy Product form Solution heat treatment (a) Precipitation heat treatment Metal temperature (b) Temper...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... center of a specimen are shown in Fig. 1 , respectively. Aging refers to the controlled breakdown of supersaturated solid solution at room temperature (natural aging) or at elevated temperature (artificial aging) to form nanosized precipitates in the matrix. These precipitates strengthen materials by...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004014
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... be stress relieved, annealed, and/or aged differently after flow forming to alter the mechanical properties. Table 3 lists resulting mechanical properties of various materials in different conditions after cold flow forming. Table 2 Alloys flow formed at ambient and elevated temperatures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006268
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... on the application envisaged. In the course of aging, the solid solution decomposes into various phases as the atoms dissolved in the aluminum matrix start diffusing, mediated by excess or equilibrium vacancies. In a first stage, small clusters of solute atoms are formed—most likely by homogeneous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006288
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Aluminum-lithium alloys with age hardening from the continuous precipitation of δ′ (Al 3 Li) Table 1 Typical solution and precipitation heat treatments for commercial heat treatable aluminum alloy mill products with copper alloying Alloy Product form Solution heat treatment Precipitation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... typical properties and compositions of silver-copper alloys and gold jewelry alloys such as colored gold alloys and white gold alloys. annealing gold alloys precious metals silver-copper alloys PRECIOUS METALS comprise gold (Au), silver (Ag), platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), iridium (Ir...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... treatment, so that the particles act as heterogeneous nucleation sites for the η phase. Precipitates are fine phases or clusters that form during aging of a supersaturated solid solution (see also the article “Age Hardening of Aluminum Alloys” in this Volume). In many (but not all) metals, alloying...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006274
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... following variables must be closely controlled: Solution temperature Time at temperature Time lapse between furnace and quenching medium Cooling rate The third step involves aging, where the supersaturated solid solution forms new precipitates or dispersions of fine particles. If this...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006275
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... quickly followed by softening as the coarse structure is formed. At suitable solute concentrations in lead-antimony alloys, the structure may remain single phase with hardening by Guinier-Preston (GP) zones formed during aging. At higher concentrations, and in certain other systems, aging may produce...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006264
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... found immediately after casting. In other words, the treatment was used to dissolve the GP zones and other precipitates that had formed by natural aging since the alloy was cast. However, this short solution treatment was not sufficient to completely homogenize the structure. Immediately following the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...-formed parts should be fully annealed after final forming. If annealing causes distortion, the work can be formed within 10% of the intended shape, annealed, pickled, and then given the final forming. Depending on the size, amount, and dispersion of secondary phases, the age-hardenable alloys show...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... increase ductility to facilitate forming or machining, prepare for welding, relieve stresses after welding, produce specific microstructures, or soften age-hardened structures by resolution of second phases. Solution treating is intended to dissolve second phases to produce maximum corrosion resistance or...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
...), Inconel (Ni-Cr-Mo), Hastelloy (Ni-Mo-Cr), and Incoloy (Ni-Fe-Cr) families of alloys. The heat treatment processes for gamma prime nickel alloys, gamma prime nickel-iron superalloys, and gamma double-prime nickel-iron superalloys are also included. The article also provides information on age-hardenable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... because of the finer microstructural scale. Quenching from lower temperatures may create a volume fraction of metastable β, with the maximum volume depending on the alloy composition. Aging this metastable β will form a fine dispersion of α within the β phase. Therefore, the more martensite (and/or...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...-alpha titanium alloys. A longitudinal section of the macrostructure of a typical roll formed VT25 disk after heat treatment (solution at 950 °C, or 1740 °F, for 1 h followed by aging at 530 °C, or 990 °F, for 6 h) is shown in Fig. 11(a) . The microstructure at various positions in the disk is shown in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006258
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... hydrogen atmosphere is employed to remove some of the brittle Mg-Zn-RE grain-boundary phases. The addition of silver and neodymium-rich mischmetal promotes age hardening when the alloy is given a full T6 treatment. The precipitates formed are relatively stable, and the alloy shows high mechanical strength...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... enhance formability, such as required for superplastic forming  O3 Homogenized H Strain hardened (i.e., for non-age-hardening alloys, wrought products only); this temper applies to products that have their strength increased by strain hardening, with or without supplementary thermal treatment to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
.... Bronzes originally (from the time of the Bronze Age) referred to alloys in which tin was the major alloying element. Today (2016), however, the term bronze is commonly used for a number of alloys that contain other elements with little, if any, tin. Bronzes can refer to copper alloys with various...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... basis, even when magnesium and zinc are present in the ratio to form MgZn 2 . Table 4 shows typical values of electrical conductivity for some common aluminum alloys and tempers. Note the relatively strong effect of artificial aging on the conductivity values for the 2 xxx and 7 xxx alloys, which...