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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001317
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... determining the type of zeolite that is prepared. Zeolites are of great interest catalytically, primarily because of their high activity and unusual selectivity in a variety of acid-catalyzed reactions. They are also interesting as catalyst carriers for metals, metal cations, and oxides. They are used...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001747
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... 5 provides abundant active oxygen molecules for the formation of CO 2 . The nonelevated temperature of the material prevents moisture formation. Gas separation ensures that only the gas being determined and the inert carrier enter the detection section at the time of measurement. Selection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005799
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... to sustain a carburizing atmosphere that proceeds in the forward direction. ( Ref 3 ). Gas carburizing atmospheres are often generated by enriching an endothermic carrier gas with methane. The carburizing potential of endothermic gas without hydrocarbon enrichment is not sufficient to produce significant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...; UV-vis: ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy; XRS: x-ray Raman spectroscopy; NAA: neutron activation analysis; FTIR: Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry; RS: Raman spectroscopy; GC: gas chromatography; GC-MS: gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; LC: liquid chromatography; LC-MS: liquid...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... at the processing temperature and serves as a carrier gas to bring chromium to the surface of the part. Diffusion coatings can be formed on nickel-base superalloys by pack cementation using ammonium chloride as a chromium-alumina activator. These coatings usually contain 20 to 25 wt% Cr at the outer surface...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... such as aluminum oxide. A halide salt activator is added that changes to the vapor phase at the processing temperature and serves as a carrier gas to bring chromium to the surface of the part. Diffusion coatings can be formed on nickel-base superalloys by pack cementation using ammonium chloride as a chromium...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Silicate/ester Phenolic urethane/amine Polyolisocyanate Alumina phosphate The cold box and heat-cured (heat-activated) processes lend themselves exceptionally well to medium- and high-production applications. Examples of high-production operations are foundries that cast automotive, pipe...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... for Nickel Average Nickel Thickness Watts and Nickel Sulfamate Processes Other Nickel Plating Solutions for Engineering Applications Nickel Alloy Plating and Composites Carriers (Brighteners of the First Class, Secondary Brighteners, Control Agents, Ductilizers) Auxiliary Brighteners...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... (below the chopper in Fig. 1 ), which meters a specified amount of resin filler paste onto a plastic carrier film. The paste consists of several ingredients, which can be changed to fit the particular needs of specific processing conditions and applications. The carrier film passes under a chopper...
Book Chapter

By Frank K. Ko
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... known by its former name, New England Butt, and now called Wardwell Braiding Machine Company), which manufactures braiders ranging from three-carrier to 144-carrier models. There are a number of braid manufacturers actively producing braided preforms and/or developing braided composites. A sample list...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... oil quenched from 845 °C (1550 °F), tempered for 2 h at 620 °C (1150 °F), and surface activated with manganese phosphate before nitriding. (a) Structure after single-stage nitriding 0.005 to 0.0075 mm (0.0002 to 0.0003 in.) white surface layer (Fe 2 N), iron nitride, and tempered martensite. (b...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006423
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... to the fact that the viscosity of liquid lubricants is generally much lower than that of solid lubricants. Source: (a) Ref 34 and (b) Ref 62 Fig. 25 Hydrostatic drawing die with actively pressurized inlet zone to encourage hydrodynamic lubrication. Source: Ref 63 Fig. 26 Effect...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... of Metallization of Surface Mounted Components on Soldering , Hybrid Microcir. , May 1987 , p 89 27. Wild R. , Some Factors Affecting Leadless Chip Carrier Solder Joint Fatigue Life , Proc. 12th Electron. Mfg. Seminar (China Lake, CA), Naval Weapons Center, 1988 , p 275 28. Vianco P...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Water 38.60 Carrier substance, die cooling Source: Ref 54 Heat transfer coefficients measured in “two-die” experiments Table 2 Heat transfer coefficients measured in “two-die” experiments Pressure, MPa (ksi) Heat transfer coefficient ( h 0 ), kW/ m 2 K No lubricant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002433
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... objective of LCA is to provide a total life-cycle “big-picture” view of the interactions of a human activity (manufacturing of a product) with the environment. Other major goals are to provide greater insight into the overall environmental consequences of industrial activities and to provide decision makers...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... on furnace walls. In general, fluxes may be grouped into two classes: gaseous or solids. Gaseous fluxes may be a blend of an inert and a chemically active gas that is injected into the molten bath. Solid fluxes are blends of salts, which, at the present time (2008), are the most preferred type of fluxes...
Book Chapter

By Paul T. Vianco
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
....) are readily attached by wave soldering; larger packages (e.g., leaded or leadless chip carriers) may be damaged by exposure to the harsh environments (flux and molten solder) as well as be more prone to solder defects ( Ref 1 ). The wave soldering technique encompasses a sequence of processes, all...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Abstract Abstract Rust-preventive compounds are removable coatings used for the protection of the surfaces of iron, steel, coated or galvanized products, and other alloys. This article describes the basic parts of rust-preventive compounds, namely, carrier, film former, polar materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... 1 2 2 1 Reduce wear and galling between tool and workpiece (chemical surface activity) 4 3 2 1 Flushing action to prevent buildup of scale and dirt (fluid flow) 5 4 3 2 Protect surface characteristics; nonstaining 5 2 2 1 Minimize processing costs, welding, cleaning...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... or automation of the process, and the elimination of normally used molding activities (such as ramming and jolting). The increased heat conductivity of the iron or steel molding material also results in a finer grain structure in the cast metal. Another advantage is that a one-piece mold can be produced without...