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acidified chloride

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... hydrochloric, and some are extremely resistant to the chloride-induced phenomena of pitting, crevice attack, and stress-corrosion cracking (to which the stainless steels are susceptible). Nickel alloys are also among the few metallic materials able to cope with hot hydrofluoric acid. The conditions where...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006635
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., followed by chlorine gas evolution 2. Lead(II) acetate or nitrate Brown lead(IV) oxide forms upon heating 3. Cobalt nitrate Black precipitate of cobalt(II) hydroxide 4. Mercury On shaking slightly acidified solution of a hypochlorite with Hg, a brown precipitate of mercury(II) chloride is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... ). The Loprox process requires materials that can survive 200 °C (390 °F) and pressures of 2.0 MPa (290 psi) while injecting pure oxygen into an acidified waste stream. Pure titanium offers corrosion resistance as adequate as that of Nb-55Ti but is potentially self-ignitable under the process conditions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... the relative corrosion rates in 1 N sodium chloride (NaCl) of crystalline iron-chromium alloys as compared to those of glassy Fe-Cr x P 13 C 7 alloys, where x ranges between 2 and 10 at.%. The corrosion rates of the crystalline alloys were approximately 0.6 mm/yr (24 mils/yr) and were largely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... suitable for handling these media. In addition, zirconium is susceptible to localized corrosion, such as pitting and stress-corrosion cracking in chloride solutions under oxidizing conditions. However, zirconium is not susceptible to crevice corrosion in chloride solutions, because the condition in a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... (700 ft/min), takes place from either a sulfate- or chloride-based electrolyte, although a mixed chemistry is used in some of the smaller and older plating lines. These electrolytes are aqueous solutions of zinc ions and ions of the alloying nickel or iron metal with sulfate or chloride ions, acidified...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... concentration of chemical species, pH, aeration, flow rate (velocity), impurities (such as chlorides), and temperature, including effects from heat transfer. The second criterion is mechanical properties, or strength. High-strength materials often sacrifice resistance to some form of corrosion, particularly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... given in Table 3 . Table 3 Compositions of flux solutions used in hot dip tinning Solution Constituents Zinc chloride Ammonium chloride Sodium chloride Hydrochloric acid (a) Water kg lb kg lb kg lb cm 3 oz L gal A 11 25 0.7 1.5 … … 296–591 10–20 38 10...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
...) ( Ref 5 ). Beryllium has been reported to perform without problems for 10 years in slightly acidified demineralized water in a nuclear test reactor ( Ref 3 , 6 ). This high-purity water environment also produced no evidence of accelerated corrosion with the beryllium galvanically coupled with stainless...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... optimum corrosion resistance, the amorphous aluminum oxide produced by anodizing is sealed by treating in slightly acidified hot water, boiling deionized water, a hot dichromate solution, or a nickel acetate solution. Sealing is discussed in a subsequent section of this article. Improve decorative...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... dihydrate (EDTA), 0.575 M solution (21.4 g/L, or 2.85 oz/gal) Ammonium hydroxide (concentrated) Potassium iodide (10% solution in water) Silver nitrate (13 g/L, or 1.7 oz/gal solution in water) LaMotte sulfo-orange indicator Sulfuric acid, standard (0.94 N ) Barium chloride (10% solution in water...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003839
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... crevice-type corrosion ( Ref 41 , 42 ). Corrosion problems that do not directly arise from the reinforcement, the matrix alloy, or their interaction are usually induced by processing. Examples are corrosion of diffusion bonds and corrosion due to microstructural chlorides. The B MF /Al and Gr...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... mechanically breached within a fine surface crack isolated from the bulk environment, titanium alloys can crack due to SCC, even in room-temperature chloride solutions. This occurs if the crack velocity is sufficient to prevent diffusion of the bulk electrolyte to the crack tip, which would extinguish the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001317
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Fluid catalytic cracking to produce gasoline High- → low-molecular-weight hydrocarbon (C 5 -C 13 ) Acidic Y zeolite in SiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 matrix (microspheres) Catalytic reforming to produce high-octane gasoline (1) Dehydrogenation Pt, PtRe, or PtSn on acidified Al 2 O 3 (pellet) (2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... numerous to list, but some examples include: Reduction of salts to yield pure metals Reduction of neutral organic molecules Production of oxygen for spacecraft and nuclear submarines via electrolysis of acidified water Production of pure hydrogen to serve as a fuel through electrolysis of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006651
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... reaction cells are used to remove polyatomic ions with the same mass of the analyte of interest. For example, argon (40)-chloride (35) has a mass of 75 Da, similar to that of arsenic (As), thus becoming an interference if arsenic is the analyte of interest. Collision cells use a nonreactive gas (such as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... biofilm, and mobile anions such as chloride are attracted to the corroding anodic surface by the release of positively charged metal ions. Chloride ions can accelerate the corrosion process, especially in systems that rely on a passivating oxide film on the metal surface for protection. Microorganisms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... (C17000, C17200, and C17500) are essentially immune to cracking in sodium, potassium, magnesium, and mixed chloride salt solutions. They show no loss of ductility or strength under severe hydrogen-charging conditions. Superior corrosion resistance and high hardness has led to their long successful service...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001296
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... tests. In particular, they are used to evaluate different lots (for quality control in production) or different samples (for coating development in research). As can be seen from Table 2 , the neutral salt spray test has been modified into acidified tests. In certain cases, complete...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... resistance, although solderability, wear resistance, and other properties sometimes are also desired. The selection of a suitable finishing system depends on the service environment, particularly with respect to oxygen (air), moisture, chlorides, and temperature. The following environments are listed in...