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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Passivation; pickling, that is, acid descaling; electropolishing; and mechanical cleaning are important surface treatments for the successful performance of stainless steel used for piping, pressure vessels, tanks, and machined parts in a wide variety of applications. This article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract This article describes the allotropic modification and atmospheric corrosion of pure tin. Corrosion of pure tin due to oxidation reaction, and reaction with the other gases, water, acids, bases, and other liquid media, is discussed. The article provides information on corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... compounds from magnetic particle and fluorescent penetrant inspection. The cleaning processes include emulsion cleaning, electrolytic alkaline cleaning, acid cleaning, solvent cleaning, vapor degreasing, alkaline cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, and glass bead cleaning. The article provides guidelines for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006070
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... problem. Such areas may be acid rain fall-out zones, locations where salts may concentrate due to evaporation, and at the bottom of pits and beneath rust on previously corroded steel. When salt contamination is present on a surface, indicators are almost always present. Sometimes (but rarely) salt...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... long periods of time in most outdoor environments, sometimes up to 40 years. Extreme ultraviolet (UV) light, humidity, smog, acid rain, industrial gases, and other airborne hazards have little effect on the metal structures coated with these finishes, provided formulators develop their coatings from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... other chlorides (found in marine environments and in deicing salts), and sulfates (from acid rains) are notorious for causing osmotic blistering of coatings in immersion service and/or accelerated rates of corrosion in atmospheric service if they are allowed to remain on a substrate before painting or...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... classification, LCI burdens are placed into the categories of ecological health, human health, and resource depletion. Within each of these categories, the burdens are further partitioned into subcategories; for example, greenhouse gases, acid rain precursors, and toxins of various kinds. Some burdens might fall...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... atmospheric corrosion studies at locations intended to be representative of rural, industrial, and marine conditions. However, the implementation of environmental legislation in the latter decades of the century caused some long-standing industrial test sites to become less aggressive, while acid rain caused...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
.../bicarbonate ratio, minerals, organic acids, and by industrial wastes or acid rain. In the normal pH range of 5 to 8, factors other than pH have greater influence on the corrosion of steel. Resistivity of soil is the most frequently used parameter for determining its aggressiveness. Resistivity also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... for sources of VOCs and HAPs that trigger threshold amounts Reduce emissions from power plants, to reduce the generation of “acid rain” from NOX and SOX Following are the broad thresholds for determining whether a surface finishing process requires an operating permit and may be subject to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... coatings are, however, subject to damage from environmental elements such as acid rain, UV degradation, high relative humidity and temperatures, stone chipping, and abrasive scratching of the coating surface. Typically, harder, more highly crosslinked films may exhibit improved scratch resistance, but...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003844
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... environments and in deicing salts), and sulfates (from acid rains) are notorious for causing osmotic blistering of coatings in immersion service and accelerated rates of corrosion in atmospheric service if they are allowed to remain on a substrate before painting or between coats of paint. Once water enters...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001278
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... the painting and baking process. Another disadvantage of melamine cross-linked systems is susceptibility to environmental etching (i.e., spotting from acid rain), which has become a concern in recent years. It is not the purpose of this review to discuss the details of melamine formaldehyde chemistry...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... atmospheric particles for elemental content ( Ref 11 ), is also its most common application. The problem of atmospheric particles entails personal health, atmospheric visibility, and ecological effects, including ties to acid rain. Because of the complexity of the particles, existing analytical methods were...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... systems or face-sealed systems (wall systems that rely on complete sealing of the surface and all transitions to provide a barrier to moisture penetration, such as that caused by wind-driven rain). When the coatings fail to perform as designed, moisture penetration to the interior is a likely result...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... ( Ref 2 , 26 ). It has been found that during one rain episode, zinc concentration in runoff water is initially higher compared to a later stage; it tends to increase with increasing rain acidity but decreases with the intensity of rain. There is also a correlation between the amount of SO 2 in the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... occasional. Acid rain, which often has a pH of 4 to 4.5, can etch concrete slightly, usually without affecting the performance of the exposed surface. Acids react with the calcium hydroxide of the hydrated portland cement. In most cases, the chemical reaction forms water-soluble calcium compounds, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... Pittsburgh and Pittsburgh International Airport. Engineers specified the four-coat polyurethane system because it would withstand the rigors of hot and cold temperature extremes, air pollution, and acid rain. The coating process began at the fabricating plant in Des Moines, IA. Crews blasted the exterior...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... steel can be pickled in an acid solution, often a mixture of nitric and hydrofluoric acids (HNO 3 -HF), to remove oxides formed in heat treatment. Once the surface is cleaned and the bulk composition of the stainless steel is exposed to air, the passive film forms immediately...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., pollutions, acid rain, and proximity to a seacoast. Designing to avoid retention of such contaminants is critical. Thus, design specifications for construction projects must include normal and extremes of environmental conditions. Design change can also include the isolation of dissimilar metals. The...