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acid plating baths

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Compositions and operating conditions of acid copper plating baths Table 4 Compositions and operating conditions of acid copper plating baths Constituent or condition Copper sulfate bath Copper fluoborate bath General Printed circuit through-hole Low copper High copper Bath...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract Copper can be electrodeposited from numerous electrolytes. Cyanide and pyrophosphate alkalines, along with sulfate and fluoborate acid baths, are the primary electrolytes used in copper plating. This article provides information on the chemical composition, plating baths...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Copper can be electrodeposited from numerous electrolytes. Cyanide and pyrophosphate alkalines, along with sulfate and fluoborate acid baths, are the primary electrolytes used in copper plating. This article provides information on the chemical composition, plating baths, and operating...
Book Chapter

By A. Sato
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001248
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Abstract Abstract Commercial zinc plating is accomplished by a number of distinctively different systems: cyanide baths, alkaline noncyanide baths, and acid chloride baths. This article focuses on the composition, advantages, disadvantages, operating parameters, and applications of each...
Book Chapter

By George B. Rynne
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., and applications of lead plating. electrolytes fluoborate baths fluosilicate baths lead anodes lead plating methane sulfonic acid baths stripping sulfamate baths LEAD has been deposited from a variety of electrolytes, including fluoborates, fluosilicates, sulfamates, and methane sulfonic acid...
Book Chapter

By Nabil Zaki
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Compositions and process parameters for zinc-nickel plating solutions Table 2 Compositions and process parameters for zinc-nickel plating solutions Constituent or parameter Amount or value Acid baths Zinc chloride, g/L (oz/gal) 120–130 (16–17) Nickel chloride, g/L (oz/gal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Chromium (+6) 160 2.3 1.5 15 1 Sulfuric acid 2.5 2.3 1.5 15 1.6×10 −2 Decorative chromium plating bath Chromium (+6) 164 0.16 1 15 6.8×10 −1 Sulfuric acid 1.6 0.16 1 15 6.7×10 −3 Trivalent chromium plating bath Chromium (+3) 10 0.08 0.5 95 3.3×10 −3 Nickel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... This is often followed by use of an electrolytic alkaline cleaner and a spray alkaline cleaner. An acid dip is then carried out to remove oxides and scale. There must be adequate rinsing between the alkaline/acid baths and the acid/plating baths to avoid contamination of the plating bath by carryover from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... acid cleaning, solvent cleaning, vapor degreasing, and emulsion cleaning. Articles on each of the aforementioned processes can be found in the section “Surface Cleaning” in Surface Engineering , Volume 5, ASM Handbook , 1994. Molten Salt Baths Molten salt baths are excellent for cleaning...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... ). Metallic substrates should be cleaned. A common acid cleaning procedure is a 10 to 20% HCl bath immediately before plating. Steel substrates should be plated with an alkaline copper or acid nickel strike coating. All equipment in contact with the plating solution should be nonmetallic. Tanks...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... solution Hydrochloric acid, standard (0.7 N ) Procedure Pipette exactly 2 mL (0.07 oz) of plating bath into a 250 mL (8.5 oz) Erlenmeyer flask, and dilute to about 100 mL (3.4 oz) with distilled water. Neutralize this dilution to a faint white precipitate with hydrochloric or sulfuric acid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... a decrease in rate of deposition is to be expected. Indium fluoborate plating bath Table 3 Indium fluoborate plating bath Constituent parameter Value or condition Indium fluoborate 236 g/L (31.5 oz/gal) Boric acid 22–30 g/L (2.9–4.0 oz/gal) Ammonium fluoborate 40–50 g/L (5.3–6.7...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... chromium plating baths Table 2 Compositions and operating conditions for two chromium plating baths Constituent or condition General decorative bath Bright, crack-free bath Chromic acid 250 g/L (33.0 oz/gal) 260–300 g/L (35–40 oz/gal) Ratio of chromic acid to sulfate 100:1 to 125:1...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003216
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... solutions. Hypophosphite-reduced electroless nickel plating solutions Table 1 Hypophosphite-reduced electroless nickel plating solutions Constituent or condition Alkaline Acid Bath 1 Bath 2 Bath 3 Bath 4 Bath 5 Bath 6 Composition Nickel chloride, g/L (oz/gal) 45 (6) 30 (4...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003216
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...) Table 1 Hypophosphite-reduced electroless nickel plating solutions Constituent or condition Alkaline Acid Bath 1 Bath 2 Bath 3 Bath 4 Bath 5 Bath 6 Composition Nickel chloride, g/L (oz/gal) 45 (6) 30 (4) 30 (4) … … … Nickel sulfate, g/L (oz/gal) … … … 21 (2.8) 34...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...-5.5 (20-55) 1-2 (10-20) 0.5-10 (5-10) (a) Hamilton is a term that has been applied to white, pink, green, and brown golds. It is practically meaningless today, but is still widely used. Acid gold color plating baths for heavy deposits Table 2 Acid gold color plating baths...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001264
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... electroless nickel plating solutions Constituent or condition Alkaline Acid Bath 1 Bath 2 Bath 3 Bath 4 Bath 5 Bath 6 Composition Nickel chloride, g/L (oz/gal) 45 (6) 30 (4) 30 (4) … … … Nickel sulfate, g/L (oz/gal) … … … 21 (2.8) 34 (4.5) 45 (6) Sodium hypophosphite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001310
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... or that localized pitting results. As the bath is used, magnesium is dissolved and acid is consumed. Concentrated acid must be added periodically to replenish what is consumed and to maintain the solution within recommended composition limits. As the magnesium content of the solution increases, the pickling rate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., and coating of aluminum. These include abrasive blast cleaning, barrel finishing, polishing, buffing, satin finishing, chemical cleaning, chemical brightening, electrolytic brightening, chemical etching, alkaline etching, acid etching, chemical conversion coating, electroplating, immersion plating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Pretreatment A Pretreatment B Process description Anodic electroclean, cold water rinses, immersion in 5% sulfuric acid at room temperature for 15 s, cold water rinses Anodic electroclean, cold water rinses, anodic etch in bath for 1 min at 60 A/dm 2 Surface roughness after plating   R a , μm...