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acid pickling

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Pickling is the most common of several processes used to remove scale from steel surfaces. This article provides a discussion on pickling solutions, such as sulfuric and hydrochloric acid, and describes the role of inhibitors in acid pickling. It discusses the equipment and processes...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... stainless steel. This article describes the surface treatment of stainless steels including abrasive blast cleaning, acid pickling, salt bath descaling, passivation treatments, electropolishing, and the necessary coating processes involved. It also describes the surface treatment of heat-resistant alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... pickling is a matter of degree, and some overlapping in the use of these terms occurs. Acid pickling is a more severe treatment for the removal of scale from semifinished mill products, forgings, or castings, whereas acid cleaning generally refers to the use of acid solutions for final or near-final...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... cupric salts organic solvents noble metals neoprene reinforced thermoset plastics HYDROCHLORIC ACID (HCl) is an important mineral acid with many uses, including acid pickling of steel, acid treatment of oil wells, chemical cleaning, and chemical processing. It is made by absorbing hydrogen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
.... Nitric acid is also a key component in the manufacturing of adipic acid and terephthalic acid. Other uses include the production of industrial explosives such as nitroglycerin and trinitrotoluene (TNT), dyes, plastics, synthetic fibers, and in metal pickling and the recovery of uranium. The basic HNO 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... be attained by any pickling method. Table 1 provides selected formulas for pickling nickel alloys, and the table below will aid in preparing these formulas: Acid °Bé Specific gravity Concentration, wt% HNO 3 42 1.41 67 H 2 SO 4 66 1.84 93 HCl 20 1.16 32 HF 30 1.26...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
..., mechanical, chemical, and electrochemical and their effectiveness and applicability. The mechanical cleaning methods include grinding, brushing, steam or flame jet cleaning, abrasive blasting, and tumbling. Solvent cleaning, emulsion cleaning, alkaline cleaning, acid cleaning, pickling, and descaling are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Passivation; pickling, that is, acid descaling; electropolishing; and mechanical cleaning are important surface treatments for the successful performance of stainless steel used for piping, pressure vessels, tanks, and machined parts in a wide variety of applications. This article...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... describes common cleaning processes, including alkaline, electrolytic, solvent, emulsion, molten salt bath, ultrasonic and acid cleaning as well as pickling and abrasive blasting. It also explains how to select the appropriate process for a given soil type and surface composition. abrasive blast...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article addresses surface cleaning, finishing, and coating operations that have proven to be effective for molybdenum, tungsten, tantalum, and niobium. It describes standard procedures for abrasive blasting, molten caustic processing, acid cleaning, pickling, and solvent and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
...; traditionally, it is used in pickling solutions in the metal industry, in the fabrication of chlorofluorocarbon compounds, as an alkylation agent for gasoline, and as an etching agent in the glass industry. In recent years, hydrofluoric acid has extensively been used in the manufacture of semiconductors and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001269
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... frequent or continuous skimming. Magnetic separators and other devices are effective in removing soil burden and prolonging the useful life of the cleaner. Most pickling operations use an acid to dissolve metal oxides. The resulting reactions are affected by concentration, temperature, and agitation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
.... In the food industry, wooden stave storage tanks have been used for the storage of dilute acetic acid, and many years of service are common with wood tanks in 3 to 4% acid. However, stainless steel tanks are now widely used with the exception of pickle production, wherein copious amounts of salt are...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... succession of operations typically employed in anodizing is illustrated in Fig. 1 . Fig. 1 Typical process sequence for anodizing operations Pickling in solutions containing 4 to 15 vol% H 2 SO 4 or 40 to 90 vol% hydrochloric acid (HCl) is used for removal of oxides formed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Table 1 Pickling conditions for copper-base materials Constituent or condition Amount or value Sulfuric acid bath Sulfuric acid (a) 15–20 vol% 35% hydrogen peroxide 3–5 vol% Water bal Temperature of solution Room temperature to 60 °C (140 °F) Immersion time 15...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... pickling. Metal removal by a chemical bath of nitric-hydrofluoric acid is used most commonly, although other baths have been used. The usual bath for zirconium, Zircaloys, and hafnium is composed of 25 to 50% nitric acid, 70 vol%; 2 to 5% hydrofluoric acid, 49 vol%; and the remainder water. The acid bath...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... for plating, pickling, anodizing, and other chemical and electrolytic processes is exposed to acid and alkali solutions as well as corrosive fumes at temperatures up to or higher than 100 °C (212 °F). Information on materials for and prevention of corrosion in these applications is also available in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... also be adapted for corrosion testing of hafnium. The subject of corrosion testing of reactive metals is also covered by Yau ( Ref 10 ). Surface condition is more important with hafnium than with many other metals. In hydrochloric acid applications, for instance, a well-pickled surface is recommended...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... to pickle and passivate steel piping. It is not as effective as HCl in removing iron oxide scale, but phosphoric acid has proven effective for cleaning stainless steels. Phosphoric acid was originally used for removing mill scale from new boilers because it also helped passivate the surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... environments. These environments include mineral acids, many organic acids, liquid metals, and most salt solutions. One application is the heating of hydrochloric acid, using niobium steam-heating coils, to pickle carbon steel. Another application for niobium is for overhead condenser and heat-recovery...