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acid electrolytes

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Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
...Abstract Abstract Shaped tube electrolytic machining (STEM) is a modified electrochemical machining (ECM) process that uses an acid electrolyte so that the removed metal goes into the solution instead of forming a precipitate. This article lists some specific machining applications of the STEM...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Abstract Abstract A tin deposit provides sacrificial protection to copper, nickel, and many other nonferrous metals and alloys. Tin also provides good protection to steel. Tin can be deposited from either alkaline or acid electrolytes. This article explains the compositions and operating...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract Copper can be electrodeposited from numerous electrolytes. Cyanide and pyrophosphate alkalines, along with sulfate and fluoborate acid baths, are the primary electrolytes used in copper plating. This article provides information on the chemical composition, plating baths...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006511
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... are eliminated and reflectance is increased. Phosphoric-Nitric Acid Baths Phosphoric-Sulfuric Acid Baths Solution compositions and operating conditions for three commercial electropolishing processes, as well as for suitable post-treatments, are given in Table 1 . Operating conditions for electrolytes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Abstract Abstract This article provides a detailed account of the various alkaline and acid plating baths used for electrolytic copper plating. Dilute cyanide and Rochelle cyanide baths, high-efficiency sodium and potassium cyanide baths, alkaline noncyanide copper plating baths, and alkaline...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... or rechargeable batteries. Fuel cells are classified into five types: phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC), solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell, alkaline electrolyte fuel cell, molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), and solid oxide fuel cell. The article presents reactions that occur during charging and discharging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... and electrolytic cleaning as well as mechanical grinding and finishing. The article also provides information on common plating and coating methods, including electroplating, anodizing, and oxidation-resistant coatings. abrasive blasting acid cleaning anodizing coating electrolytic cleaning...
Book Chapter

By Mark C. Williams
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003602
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... low-temperature fuel cells high-temperature fuel cells electrochemical reactions fuels oxygen polymer electrolyte alkaline phosphoric acid molten carbonate fuel cells solid oxide fuel cells FUEL CELLS are electrochemical devices that convert the chemical energy of a reaction directly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... and processes involved in the batch, continuous, and electrolytic pickling of carbon steel components. The article describes the effects of process variables on scale removal in sulfuric and hydrochloric acid. It concludes with a description of pickling defects, spent pickle liquor disposal, and safety...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... of sulfamic, phosphoric, sulfuric, or hydrochloric acid Scale Complete removal of scale from mill products and fabricated parts Electrolytic pickling removes scale twice as fast. Salt bath descaling: Bath operates within temperatures of 400 to 525 °C (750 to 975 °F) Several...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the classification of fuel cells depending on the operating temperature and type of electrolytes used. This classification includes alkaline fuel cells, phosphoric acid fuel cells, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), molten carbonate fuel...
Book Chapter

By George B. Rynne
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Abstract Abstract Lead has been deposited from a variety of electrolytes, including fluoborates, fluosilicates, sulfamates, and methane sulfonic acid baths. This article provides a discussion on these electrolytic baths and includes information on the process sequence, equipment requirements...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., and coating of aluminum. These include abrasive blast cleaning, barrel finishing, polishing, buffing, satin finishing, chemical cleaning, chemical brightening, electrolytic brightening, chemical etching, alkaline etching, acid etching, chemical conversion coating, electroplating, immersion plating...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... machining. Electrostream and capillary drilling both cover the same general size range and are similar in that they both use glass tube cathodes and acid electrolytes, but there are distinct differences in the process and in the equipment. Both processes differ from shaped tube electrolytic machining...
Book Chapter

By Jude Mary Runge
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006523
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
...Summary of anodic oxide finish types in accordance with MIL-A-8625 Table 1 Summary of anodic oxide finish types in accordance with MIL-A-8625 Type and designation Electrolyte type Thickness ( t ) range, μm Applications I Chromic acid 0.5 < t < 8 Aerospace/aircraft base...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003597
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... is also known as shaped-tube electrolytic machining ( Ref 7 ). This process basically differs from conventional ECM in two aspects: either a mixture (neutral salt and acidic electrolyte) or acidic electrolyte is used, and a coated tubular cathode is used. The mixture or acidic electrolyte is added...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... The article describes common cleaning processes, including alkaline, electrolytic, solvent, emulsion, molten salt bath, ultrasonic and acid cleaning as well as pickling and abrasive blasting. It also explains how to select the appropriate process for a given soil type and surface composition. abrasive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... and lapping compounds from magnetic particle and fluorescent penetrant inspection. The cleaning processes include emulsion cleaning, electrolytic alkaline cleaning, acid cleaning, solvent cleaning, vapor degreasing, alkaline cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, and glass bead cleaning. The article provides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003581
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...Abstract Abstract Molten salts, in contrast to aqueous solutions in which an electrolyte (acid, base, salt) is dissolved in a molecular solvent, are essentially completely ionic. This article begins with an overview of the thermodynamics of cells and classification of electrodes for molten...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002160
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... solutions of inorganic salts such as sodium chloride, potassium chloride, sodium nitrate, or sodium chlorate. They may also contain proprietary additives. Other electrolytes, such as strong acids or sodium hydroxide solutions, can be used for special ECM applications or for select metals. The tool can...