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acid chloride baths

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Book Chapter

By A. Sato
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001248
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Abstract Abstract Commercial zinc plating is accomplished by a number of distinctively different systems: cyanide baths, alkaline noncyanide baths, and acid chloride baths. This article focuses on the composition, advantages, disadvantages, operating parameters, and applications of each...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... like cylinders and shafts. Commercial zinc plating is accomplished by a number of distinctively different systems: cyanide baths, alkaline noncyanide baths, and acid chloride baths. In the 1970s, most commercial zinc plating was done in conventional cyanide baths, but the passage of environmental...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... 210–280 High sulfate Nickel sulfate, 75–110 Sodium sulfate, 75–110 Ammonium chloride, 15–35 Boric acid, 15 5.3–5.8 20–32 0.5–2.5 … … … … Black nickel (sulfate bath) Nickel sulfate, 75 Zinc sulfate, 30 Ammonium sulfate, 35 Sodium thiocyanate, 15 5.6 24–32 0.15 … … … … Black...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001246
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Properties of electrodeposited iron coatings Table 2 Properties of electrodeposited iron coatings Basic bath Additives Ultimate tensile strength Elongation, % Hardness, HV MPa ksi Sulfate None 572–614 83–89 3.0–3.5 250 NaCl 354 51.4 5.5 200 Boric acid + urea...
Book Chapter

By Nabil Zaki
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Compositions and process parameters for zinc-nickel plating solutions Table 2 Compositions and process parameters for zinc-nickel plating solutions Constituent or parameter Amount or value Acid baths Zinc chloride, g/L (oz/gal) 120–130 (16–17) Nickel chloride, g/L (oz/gal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... or scaled surfaces on high-nickel alloys can be pickled with the hydrochloric acid/cupric chloride solution (Formula 11) used for nickel-copper alloys. A longer time is required, however. Immersion from 1 to 2 h is necessary to obtain a good pickle on high-nickel alloys. After removal from the pickling bath...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Pretreatment A Pretreatment B Process description Anodic electroclean, cold water rinses, immersion in 5% sulfuric acid at room temperature for 15 s, cold water rinses Anodic electroclean, cold water rinses, anodic etch in bath for 1 min at 60 A/dm 2 Surface roughness after plating   R a , μm...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Sulfuric acid 55 0.054 0.35 95 1.3×10 −2 Cadmium plating bath Cadmium 20 0.05 0.3 90 4.2×10 −3 Cyanide (CN) 25 0.05 0.3 90 5.2×10 −3 Zinc (cyanide) plating bath Zinc 35 0.054 0.35 70 1.1×10 −2 Cyanide (CN) 100 0.054 0.35 70 3.1×10 −2 Zinc (chloride) plating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... were developed to meet specific engineering requirements; all are used to a lesser extent than Watts and nickel sulfamate solutions. The following basic constituents of nickel plating baths must be regularly controlled: the nickel metal content; the chloride concentration; the boric acid; and any...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... with iron concentrations as high as 13 g/100 mL. Rinsing is facilitated because of the high solubility of chlorides. The cost of heating the bath for batch-type operations is less than it is with sulfuric acid because of lower operating temperatures. The chief disadvantage of hydrochloric acid...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003216
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...) Table 1 Hypophosphite-reduced electroless nickel plating solutions Constituent or condition Alkaline Acid Bath 1 Bath 2 Bath 3 Bath 4 Bath 5 Bath 6 Composition Nickel chloride, g/L (oz/gal) 45 (6) 30 (4) 30 (4) … … … Nickel sulfate, g/L (oz/gal) … … … 21 (2.8) 34...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... electroforming, while not in major industrial production today, is technically usable if precautions are followed. Three types of electroforming baths exist as slightly acidic systems: sulfate, fluoborate, and sulfamate systems. A fourth system is the highly acidic chloride system, which uses ferrous chloride...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... addition agent. As a last resort, carbon treat. Burning Too high a current density Lower amperage. Too low a metal content Add stannous fluoborate or lead fluoborate. Low acid content Add fluoboric acid. Wrong alloy composition Incorrect bath composition Adjust bath composition. Wrong...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001272
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Substrates Type of Zinc Bath Alloying Elements Coating Thickness Tensile Strength, Impact Toughness, and Formability Fatigue Strength Hydrogen Embrittlement Degreasing Acid Pickling Abrasive Cleaning Wet and Dry Galvanizing Surface Conditioning Requirements Galvanizing...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003216
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... solutions. Hypophosphite-reduced electroless nickel plating solutions Table 1 Hypophosphite-reduced electroless nickel plating solutions Constituent or condition Alkaline Acid Bath 1 Bath 2 Bath 3 Bath 4 Bath 5 Bath 6 Composition Nickel chloride, g/L (oz/gal) 45 (6) 30 (4...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Technology options for the deposition of chromium-base alloys Table 1 Technology options for the deposition of chromium-base alloys Type of bath Aqueous Acid Alkaline Nonaqueous Organic Molten salt Applied current None (electroless) Conventional direct...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001264
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... electroless nickel plating solutions Constituent or condition Alkaline Acid Bath 1 Bath 2 Bath 3 Bath 4 Bath 5 Bath 6 Composition Nickel chloride, g/L (oz/gal) 45 (6) 30 (4) 30 (4) … … … Nickel sulfate, g/L (oz/gal) … … … 21 (2.8) 34 (4.5) 45 (6) Sodium hypophosphite...
Book Chapter

By George B. Rynne
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... situations. Additive concentration is evaluated using the Hull cell; metal and acid concentrations can be evaluated through simple titrations. Deionized water must be used for rinsing the part prior to immersion in the plating bath because MSA is sensitive to chloride ions in the makeup water. ...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... complexes with cyanide, cannot be removed readily from the bath and causes a reduction in current efficiency. Drag-in of chloride ion from acid dips must be kept very low to prevent iron buildup due to dissolution of steel equipment. Bipolarity of steel tanks or heat exchangers should be avoided...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... 200–240 914 36 195–235 965 38 190–230 Compositions of flux covers for hot dip tinning baths Table 4 Compositions of flux covers for hot dip tinning baths Mixture Melting point Constituent Content, wt% °C °F A 260 500 Zinc chloride 78 Sodium chloride 22...