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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006511
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... brightening processes in terms of performance and economy. The article describes the phosphoric-nitric acid baths and phosphoric-sulfuric acid baths used for chemical brightening. Solution compositions and operating conditions for three commercial electropolishing processes, as well as for suitable post...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract Copper can be electrodeposited from numerous electrolytes. Cyanide and pyrophosphate alkalines, along with sulfate and fluoborate acid baths, are the primary electrolytes used in copper plating. This article provides information on the chemical composition, plating baths...
Book Chapter

By George B. Rynne
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Abstract Abstract Lead has been deposited from a variety of electrolytes, including fluoborates, fluosilicates, sulfamates, and methane sulfonic acid baths. This article provides a discussion on these electrolytic baths and includes information on the process sequence, equipment requirements...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Copper can be electrodeposited from numerous electrolytes. Cyanide and pyrophosphate alkalines, along with sulfate and fluoborate acid baths, are the primary electrolytes used in copper plating. This article provides information on the chemical composition, plating baths, and operating...
Book Chapter

By Nabil Zaki
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Compositions and process parameters for zinc-nickel plating solutions Table 2 Compositions and process parameters for zinc-nickel plating solutions Constituent or parameter Amount or value Acid baths Zinc chloride, g/L (oz/gal) 120–130 (16–17) Nickel chloride, g/L (oz/gal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Compositions and operating conditions of acid copper plating baths Table 4 Compositions and operating conditions of acid copper plating baths Constituent or condition Copper sulfate bath Copper fluoborate bath General Printed circuit through-hole Low copper High copper Bath...
Book Chapter

By A. Sato
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001248
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Abstract Abstract Commercial zinc plating is accomplished by a number of distinctively different systems: cyanide baths, alkaline noncyanide baths, and acid chloride baths. This article focuses on the composition, advantages, disadvantages, operating parameters, and applications of each...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... The article describes common cleaning processes, including alkaline, electrolytic, solvent, emulsion, molten salt bath, ultrasonic and acid cleaning as well as pickling and abrasive blasting. It also explains how to select the appropriate process for a given soil type and surface composition. abrasive...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... performance of stainless steel. This article describes the surface treatment of stainless steels including abrasive blast cleaning, acid pickling, salt bath descaling, passivation treatments, electropolishing, and the necessary coating processes involved. It also describes the surface treatment of heat...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of stainless steel. This article describes the surface treatment of stainless steels including abrasive blast cleaning, acid pickling, salt bath descaling, passivation treatments, electropolishing, and the necessary coating processes involved. It also describes the surface treatment of heat-resistant alloys...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... describes common cleaning processes, including alkaline, electrolytic, solvent, emulsion, molten salt bath, ultrasonic and acid cleaning as well as pickling and abrasive blasting. It also explains how to select the appropriate process for a given soil type and surface composition. abrasive blast...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Conventional anodizing processes Table 1 Conventional anodizing processes Bath Amount, wt% Temperature Duration, min Voltage, V Current density Film thickness Appearance properties Other properties °C °F A/dm 2 A/ft 2 μm mils Sulfuric acid bath Sulfuric acid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... bath descaling is accomplished by a series of cycles through the salt, a water rinse, and a sulfuric acid bath to remove scale before final pickling. Metal removal by a chemical bath of nitric-hydrofluoric acid is used most commonly, although other baths have been used. The usual bath for zirconium...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... the uniformity of appearance required for further finishing of copper; however, heavily scaled material may need a bright dip or color dip after pickling. Table 6 Pickling conditions for copper-base materials Constituent or condition Amount or value Sulfuric acid bath Sulfuric acid...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Acid Cleaning Acid cleaning may be used alone or in conjunction with other acid, alkaline, or solvent cleaning systems. Vapor degreasing and alkaline cleaning may be required for removal of heavy oils and grease from workpieces before they are immersed in an acid bath. One of the main functions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Corrosion of titanium in sulfuric acid pickle baths Table 2 Corrosion of titanium in sulfuric acid pickle baths A nitric-hydrofluoric acid solution, which is the final stage brightening in most alloy cleaning lines, should be maintained at a minimum ratio of 15 parts nitric acid to 1 part...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... surface with, or dip a test panel into, an unheated chromate conversion coating bath of the acid type until an orange-colored film is formed. A uniform orange film indicates a chemically clean surface. Solvent Cleaning The primary function of solvent cleaners is to remove oil and grease compounds...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... be exercised to prevent overpickling and etching. These solutions are used at room temperature. If the bath is cold, it should be warmed slightly to prevent unduly slow action. Best results with flash pickling are obtained by warming the parts by dipping them in hot water, placing them in the acid for a few...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003216
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...) Table 1 Hypophosphite-reduced electroless nickel plating solutions Constituent or condition Alkaline Acid Bath 1 Bath 2 Bath 3 Bath 4 Bath 5 Bath 6 Composition Nickel chloride, g/L (oz/gal) 45 (6) 30 (4) 30 (4) … … … Nickel sulfate, g/L (oz/gal) … … … 21 (2.8) 34...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003216
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... solutions. Hypophosphite-reduced electroless nickel plating solutions Table 1 Hypophosphite-reduced electroless nickel plating solutions Constituent or condition Alkaline Acid Bath 1 Bath 2 Bath 3 Bath 4 Bath 5 Bath 6 Composition Nickel chloride, g/L (oz/gal) 45 (6) 30 (4...