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absorptivity

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006653
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article focuses on some of the factors pertinent to atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). It begins by describing the working principle, critical components, and construction of flame atomic absorption instrumentation. This is followed by sections discussing various types of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article provides a detailed account of extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). It begins with a description of the fundamentals of EXAFS, providing information on the physical mechanism, single-scattering approximation, and multiple-scattering effects. This is followed...
Book Chapter

By S. Lampman
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006645
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...-dispersive spectrometer (WDS) and energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS). This is followed by a discussion on the mechanism and effects of X-ray radiation, X-ray emission, and X-ray absorption. The article then discusses components used, operation, and applications of WDS and EDS. Some of the factors and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006646
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract The Mossbauer effect (ME) is a spectroscopic method for observing nuclear gamma-ray fluorescence using the recoil-free transitions of a nucleus embedded in a solid lattice. This article provides an overview of the fundamental principles of ME, covering recoil-free fraction, absorption...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... Chemical analysis is carried out by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and plasma-emission spectrophotometry. Phase analysis is done by X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic methods, thermal analysis, and quantitative analysis. Techniques used for microstructural analysis...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Radiography is a nondestructive-inspection method that is based on the differential absorption of penetrating radiation by the part or test piece (object) being inspected. This article discusses the fundamentals and general applications of radiography, and describes the sources of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... microwaves. It discusses the advantages and limitations of inspection with microwaves. The article discusses the physical principles, including reflection and refraction, absorption and dispersion, scattering, and standing waves. It provides a discussion on terahertz (THz) imaging for nondestructive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... material (a medium for converting the radiation). These elements are shown schematically in Fig. 1 . The testpiece in Fig. 1 is a plate of uniform thickness containing an internal flaw that has absorption characteristics different from those of the surrounding material. Radiation from the source is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006662
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... the infrared wavelength. Techniques such as attenuated total reflectance, diffuse reflectance, specular reflectance, reflection-absorption spectroscopy, and photoacoustic spectroscopy have recently become more common. This article discusses the sampling techniques, applications, and the molecular...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... t ( y , z ) = F ( y , z ) E i ( y , z ) with (Eq 2) F ( y , z ) = A ( y , z ) exp ( i φ ( y , z ) ) The amplitude, A ( y , z ), and phase, φ( y , z ), relate to the x-ray absorption and refractive properties of the material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627082136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... when absorption conditions and/or defect densities are too high to permit the use of transmission geometry. Due to its surface sensitivity, topography in the reflection geometry is also useful for the characterization of surface defect structures within semiconductor heterostructures and epitaxial thin...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003847
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... soft natural rubber are: Hydrochloric acid processing, storage, and transportation equipment. (Pure gum rubber is used for concentrations above 25% HCl.) A minimum of 60 Shore A durometer hardness is preferred for lower concentrations because it has lower water absorption. Hydrofluoric acid (HF...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... … N N … … • … N N … C • Ultraviolet/visible absorption spectroscopy D, • D, • D,• … D,• D,• D,• D,• … … D,• D,• D,• … … X-ray diffraction … … C … C C C,S C … … C C … C … X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy • N S … • • S … … • • • … … … X...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... temperature or time in a controlled atmosphere. The weight of the evaluated material can decrease due to volatilization or decomposition or increase because of gas absorption or chemical reaction. Thermogravimetric analysis can provide valuable information regarding the composition and thermal stability of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... techniques uses one or more of the several processes by which materials can interact with microwaves, namely, reflection, refraction, scattering, absorption, and dispersion. The basic components of the transmission technique are shown schematically in Fig. 1 . Fig. 1 Diagram of the basic components...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... analysis/image comparison Surfaces, edges for damage, chips No No Training of system is difficult; only for clean (tumbled) surfaces Thermography Thermal conductivity/infrared camera Image analysis/image comparison Surfaces Varies Possibly surface Surface flaws only X-ray Absorption of x...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... orientation (texture), and A j is the absorption factor for phase j . A nonlinear least-squares routine is employed to minimize the weighted sum of squares of the difference between data and model. Initially proposed for structure (i.e., atomic position) refinement, the Rietveld method has grown as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... keV).  The matrix corrections have inherent uncertainty that arises from limitations on the accuracy of the ionization depth distribution function that forms the basis for calculating the corrections, as well as uncertainty in the physical parameters that are needed, especially the mass absorption...
Book Chapter

By David V. Neff
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... available to minimize hydrogen pickup or to degas a melt. Noting the increased solubility with temperature, as depicted in Fig. 1 , merely minimizing the melting or holding times and temperatures will lessen the hydrogen absorption. Reducing the temperature will result in natural outgassing, given time...