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abrasion artifacts

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003747
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... angular features are abrasion artifacts. (b) Same area as in (a), but then polished on a woven silk cloth charged with a 6 μm grade diamond abrasive for 3 min. Some of the abrasion artifacts remain. (c) Same area as for (b) but further polished on a napped cloth charged with a 1 μm grade diamond abrasive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... intercept distance Perimeter Mean particle surface area Sphericity Density Convex perimeter Roughness Breath Orientation Common examples of abrasion artifacts for metals Table 2 Common examples of abrasion artifacts for metals Metal Common artifacts Solution...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of damage decreases with decreasing abrasive size, the preparation sequence must be carefully planned and performed. Otherwise, preparation-induced artifacts will be interpreted as structural elements. A properly prepared specimen has the following characteristics: Deformation induced by sectioning...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... be removed if the true structure is to be examined. However, because abrasive grinding and polishing steps also produce damage, where the depth of damage decreases with decreasing abrasive size, the preparation sequence must be carefully planned and performed. Otherwise, preparation-induced artifacts...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...Coated Abrasive Manufacturers Institute (CAMI)- and Federation of European Producers of Abrasives (FEPA)-grade abrasive (grit) sizes in comparasion to the average micron sizes of these grades Table 1 Coated Abrasive Manufacturers Institute (CAMI)- and Federation of European Producers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... 17 Microstructures of a hot-rolled UNS G10100 sheet steel showing sectioning damage from (a) an abrasive cutoff wheel, (b) a band saw, and (c) from a shear. Marshall's reagent. Dark field illumination. 400× Fig. 18 Artifact microstructures in (a), (b), and (c) that developed by heating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.9781627081771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
.... It is important in this stage that no damage is done to the specimen so that artifacts are not introduced. Therefore, when sectioning the part, never use a band saw with a tooth blade, because it may damage the specimen. Instead, use an abrasive band saw to cut large parts down to a manageable size. Rough cutting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... factors that cause corrosion on metal artifacts, which include water, temperature fluctuations, pollutants, local conditions of acidity or alkalinity, vegetation, and animals. The corrosion processes experienced by five common metals, such as copper alloys, iron alloys, lead, zinc, and aluminum, used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009074
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... to fracture. Because the fibers do not allow the diamond abrasive to penetrate very deeply into the sample, a final polish is not required. However, a neoprene pad with 0.05 μm deagglomerated alumina suspension and light pressure can clean up the last of the artifacts, if so desired ( Fig. 6 ). This can...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002156
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
...Abstract Abstract Abrasive jet machining (AJM) is a process that removes material from a workpiece through the use of abrasive particles entrained in a high-velocity gas stream. This article discusses the operation of principal components, advantages, and disadvantages of the AJM system...
Book Chapter

By Samuel M. Purdy
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003750
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... A 20 cm (8 in.) as-forged billet of UNS N07718 (Inconel 718, 50Ni-19Cr-3Mo-5Nb-1.0Ti-0.5Al, bal Fe) was sectioned using a cold abrasive cutoff machine and etched directly, without further preparation, in etchant No. 1b ( Table 2 ), using a 20% addition of H 2 O 2 ( Fig. 13 ). A rim of coarse grains...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009072
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... by the casting resin. Fig. 14 Photograph of mounted composite materials after removal from a rubber mold. This figure shows a polished top surface. Fig. 4 Micrographs showing damage from cutting a carbon fiber composite part with an abrasive band saw. (a) A surfacing film can be observed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005729
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... artifacts discussed earlier in this article. Note: As has been noted previously, many researchers now use fine grinding discs and find them to be acceptable for replacement of abrasive papers. Prior to presenting some preferred polishing procedures, it is useful to discuss the response...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... in.) thick, annealed at 650 to 700 °C (1200 to 1290 °F). Longitudinal section shows equiaxed crystallized grains of a solid solution containing twin bands. Etchant 20, Table 2 . 100× Fig. 55 Examples of artifact-free or nearly artifact-free surfaces produced by different manual final polishing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009076
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...). Even the sound of the abrasive paper and the polishing cloth as the specimen is prepared can help guide the microscopist in maintaining the desired plane. While proceeding through the steps involved in preparing a specimen, a good microscopist will continuously check the specimen by viewing the light...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004142
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... archaeological material, geography, microorganisms in the soil, vegetation, land use, soil chemistry, soil physical properties, and the presence or absence of water and air. This article discusses the key environmental variables that affect the corrosion of buried metal artifacts. These include water (including...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... of a metallographic sample must be performed carefully to avoid altering or destroying the structure of interest (see the article “Metallographic Sectioning and Specimen Extraction” in Volume 9 of ASM Handbook . The most widely used sectioning device is the abrasive cutoff machine, ranging from units using thin...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004140
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... on the objects and to avoid other potentially damaging materials. carbonyl compounds corrosion pollutants plastics sulfur wood corrosive agents museums metal artifacts BRIDGES, AUTOMOBILES AND SHIPS have little in common with bronze sculptures, silver commemorative plaques, or lead...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Hafnium sheet, attack polished, etchant procedure No. 2 ( Table 2 ), anodized at 115 V, polarized light. Softer materials may be more susceptible to artifacts caused during preparation. (a) Improper polishing caused what appear to be defects in the grains. (b) Properly prepared sample. Original...