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X-ray spectroscopy

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract X-ray spectroscopy is generally accepted as the most useful ancillary technique that can be added to any scanning electron microscope (SEM), even to the point of being considered a necessity by most operators. While “stand-alone” x-ray detection systems are used less frequently...
Book Chapter

By S. Lampman
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006645
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article provides a detailed account of X-ray spectroscopy used for elemental identification and determination. It begins with an overview of the operating principles of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer, as well as a comparison of the operating principles of wavelength...
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Published: 01 June 2012
Fig. 13 Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy spectrum for analysis of the slag remnants remaining after electropolishing a laser-cut Nitinol stent (analyzed area is shown in Fig. 7b ). The oxygen peak confirmed that slag from laser cutting was not thoroughly removed. More
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Published: 01 June 2012
Fig. 14 Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis results for fine nonmetallic inclusions in Nitinol wire material More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 106 Representative energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy spectrum of spherical inclusions analyzed from Fig. 105 More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 108 Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy spectrum from an area of the defect shown in Fig. 107 More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 21 Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy spectrum of a bungee cord fractured surface showing fillers to be calcium carbonate type More
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Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 5 Typical energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy spectrum showing absorption features indicative of unique elements and the quantitation of those elements. cps, counts per second More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Abstract This article provides a detailed account of the principles, instrumentation,and applications of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), a technique used for elemental and compositional analysis of surfaces and thin films. It reviews the nomenclature of energy states and sensitivity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006639
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article focuses on the principles and applications of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) for the analysis of elemental and chemical composition. The discussion covers the nomenclature, instruments, and specimen preparation process of XPS. Some of the factors pertinent...
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 6 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profile of a type 316L stainless steel surface. The base metal composition is reached at approximately 35 nm, or 100 atoms, from the surface. In this example, the chromium/iron ratio is 7.7, an outstanding value. More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 7 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profile chart of a type 316L stainless steel surface with an extremely poor chromium/iron ratio of only 0.13. This material will show rust in only a few hours in a humid environment. More
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Published: 01 June 2016
Fig. 3 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy peak curve fit (magnesium 2 p peak) in the region of maximum magnesium content within the AlN layer. Aluminum alloy 5083; nitrided at 470 °C, or 880 °F; t N,eff = 4 h More
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Published: 01 January 1994
Fig. 4 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the Ti-2 p 1/2, 3/2 doublet in TiN and TiO 2 obtained with a thin oxide layer on TiN. Source: Ref 10 More
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Published: 01 January 1994
Fig. 10 Angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectrum of a 2.3 nm thick Al 2 O 3 layer on aluminum. (a) Al-2 p peak as a function of the takeoff angle φ. (b) Ratio of the peak areas of Al 2 O 3 and aluminum as a function of the emission angle θ = 90° − φ. Source: Ref 47 More
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Published: 01 June 2012
Fig. 17 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data for analysis of a passivated stainless steel surface. The survey spectrum in (a) shows all elements at the surface, and multiplex spectra for (b) iron and (c) chromium show the chemical state for these elements. A high ratio of oxide for these two More
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Published: 01 June 2012
Fig. 18 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth composition profile for the surface of an electropolished Nitinol device. Note the high oxygen concentration and high ratio of titanium to nickel at the surface. This surface composition is characteristic of a passive titanium oxide film More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 46 Energy-dispersive spectroscopy x-ray spectrum from a shiny metallic particle in a secondary crack, as shown in Fig. 42 More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 4 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy survey spectrum of stainless steel surface More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 5 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy high-resolution spectrum of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) More