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X-ray powder diffraction

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Abstract X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) techniques are used to characterize samples in the form of loose powders or aggregates of finely divided material that readily diffract x-rays in specified patterns. This article provides an introduction to XRPD, beginning with a review of sensing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) techniques are used to characterize samples in the form of loose powders, aggregates of finely divided material or polycrystalline specimens. This article provides a detailed account of XRPD. It begins with a discussion on XRPD instrumentation...
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Published: 01 January 1986
Fig. 12 JCPDS card giving x-ray powder diffraction and other associated data for the mineral quartz. Source: Ref 1 More
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Published: 15 December 2019
Fig. 4 Debye-Scherrer method of x-ray powder diffraction. (a) Geometric relationship of film to sample, incident beam, and diffracted beams and film when developed and laid flat. (b) Example of Debye-Scherrer films identifying phases in copper-zinc alloys of various compositions. Source: Ref More
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Published: 15 December 2019
Fig. 14 Geometry of powder diffraction and several detection methods used in x-ray powder diffraction. (a) Cones of diffracted beams emanating from a powder sample. (b) Debye-Scherrer detection method. (c) Diffractometer method of detection. (d) Position-sensitive detection. (e) Guinier method More
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Published: 15 December 2019
Fig. 7 Illustration of the diffraction cones in powder x-ray diffraction and the geometry of a point-detector setup More
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Published: 01 January 1994
Fig. 7 X-ray diffraction patterns of yttria-stabilized zirconia powder showing some monoclinic phase, and of a coating made from that powder. M, monoclinic phase; C, cubic phase; T, tetragonal phase; T + C, overlapping tetragonal and cubic reflection More
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Published: 15 December 2019
Fig. 13 (a) Contour plot of in situ powder x-ray diffraction patterns of Co(dca) 2 upon compression, displaying a phase transition at 1.1 GPa (0.16 × 10 6 psi). (b) View of metal-ligand connectivity before and after transition. Source: Ref 89 . Reprinted with permission from More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
..., such as X-ray powder diffraction, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, and atomic fluorescence spectrometry, are also discussed. atomic absorption spectroscopy atomic fluorescence spectrometry Auger electron spectroscopy bulk analysis electron...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The article discusses the analysis and interpretation of base material composition and microstructures. Preparation and examination of metallographic specimens in failure analysis are also discussed. The article...
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Published: 15 December 2019
Fig. 15 International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD) POF(R) card giving x-ray powder diffraction and other associated data for the mineral quartz More
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... and their uses are described in the following sections, along with information about the threshold sensitivity and precision, limitations, sample requirements, and capabilities of related techniques. Identification of Compounds and Phases Using X-Ray Powder Diffraction Typical Uses X-ray powder...
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Published: 15 December 2019
Fig. 8 Examples of samples mounted for micro x-ray diffraction. (a) Powdered sample of synthetic hydroxyapatite. (b) Polished thin section of metamorphic rock. (c) Cut slab of Southampton pallasite (length: 13 cm, or 5 in.). (d) Epoxy mount of garnet single crystals from Roberts Victor More
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Published: 15 June 2020
Fig. 20 X-ray diffraction spectra of Al 2 O 3 and ZrO 2 powders and Al 2 O 3 /ZrO 2 eutectic ceramics More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... materials. crystal structure qualitative analysis single crystal diffraction X-ray diffraction X-ray powder diffraction X-ray diffraction techniques are some of the most useful in the characterization of crystalline materials, such as metals, inter-metallics, ceramics, minerals, polymers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006643
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... and monochromatic beams, powder diffraction methods, and the Rietveld method. X-ray diffraction powder diffraction methods single-crystal methods Rietveld refinement Introduction Diffraction techniques are some of the most useful in the characterization of crystalline materials, such as metals...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0005693
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... x-ray powder diffraction XRF x-ray fluorescence XRS x-ray spectrometry Abbreviations a crystal lattice length along the a axis ac alternating current A absorbance ADC analog-to-digital converter AFC automatic frequency control...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... in intermediate energy (∼1 to 100 eV) neutrons for the latter method, leading to special applications utilizing these higher fluxes. Neutron Powder Diffraction The fundamental equations governing neutron powder diffraction are essentially the same as for x-rays, except that the neutron scattering length b...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... in the x-ray beam. In this case of a random oriented powder, each crystallite contributes a spot pattern, and the summation of spot patterns results in diffraction rings (Debye rings). The small spot size of the μXRD beam allows for analyses in cross section, transition, in situ, etc. without the need...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... diffraction pattern, termed a Kikuchi pattern, is analogous to the x-ray Kossel pattern, but is made up of straight lines that are easier to index. These Kikuchi patterns can be used to identify crystalline phases (similar to x-ray powder diffraction but based on a different diffraction geometry), as well...