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X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Abstract This article provides a detailed account of the principles, instrumentation,and applications of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), a technique used for elemental and compositional analysis of surfaces and thin films. It reviews the nomenclature of energy states and sensitivity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006639
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article focuses on the principles and applications of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) for the analysis of elemental and chemical composition. The discussion covers the nomenclature, instruments, and specimen preparation process of XPS. Some of the factors pertinent...
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 6 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profile of a type 316L stainless steel surface. The base metal composition is reached at approximately 35 nm, or 100 atoms, from the surface. In this example, the chromium/iron ratio is 7.7, an outstanding value. More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 7 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profile chart of a type 316L stainless steel surface with an extremely poor chromium/iron ratio of only 0.13. This material will show rust in only a few hours in a humid environment. More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 4 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy survey spectrum of stainless steel surface More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 5 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy high-resolution spectrum of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 6 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy compositional depth profile of stainless steel More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 10 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy high-resolution carbon spectrum of stainless steel surface More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 11 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy high-resolution iron spectrum of stainless steel surface More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 12 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy high-resolution iron spectrum obtained from well-passivated stainless steel surface More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 13 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy montage display of iron in the first eight sputter cycles of the depth profile (Fig. 6) More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 14 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy montage display of Cr in the first nine sputter cycles of the depth profile (Fig. 6) More
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Published: 01 January 1994
Fig. 4 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the Ti-2 p 1/2, 3/2 doublet in TiN and TiO 2 obtained with a thin oxide layer on TiN. Source: Ref 10 More
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Published: 01 January 1994
Fig. 10 Angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectrum of a 2.3 nm thick Al 2 O 3 layer on aluminum. (a) Al-2 p peak as a function of the takeoff angle φ. (b) Ratio of the peak areas of Al 2 O 3 and aluminum as a function of the emission angle θ = 90° − φ. Source: Ref 47 More
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Published: 01 June 2016
Fig. 3 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy peak curve fit (magnesium 2 p peak) in the region of maximum magnesium content within the AlN layer. Aluminum alloy 5083; nitrided at 470 °C, or 880 °F; t N,eff = 4 h More
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Published: 01 June 2012
Fig. 17 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data for analysis of a passivated stainless steel surface. The survey spectrum in (a) shows all elements at the surface, and multiplex spectra for (b) iron and (c) chromium show the chemical state for these elements. A high ratio of oxide for these two More
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Published: 01 June 2012
Fig. 18 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth composition profile for the surface of an electropolished Nitinol device. Note the high oxygen concentration and high ratio of titanium to nickel at the surface. This surface composition is characteristic of a passive titanium oxide film More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 8 Typical x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (a) binding energy, (b) depth profile spectra showing the atomic percentage change for various elements as a function of etch time. The binding energy spectrum was used to determine surface elements present at the area of interest, and the depth More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 5 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy survey spectrum of stainless steel surface with corrosion present More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 6 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy high-resolution spectrum of polyethylene terephthalate showing curve fitting More