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X-ray microscopy

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... include reflected light microscopy using polarized light, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays, and wavelength dispersive analysis of X-rays. Macroscopic property characterization involves measurement of porosity, density, and surface area...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003710
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... techniques, namely, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and atomic force microscopy, are reviewed. The article discusses the principles and applications of chemical identity and composition analysis techniques. These techniques include the energy dispersive X-ray...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... in metallurgical studies, namely scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and transmission electron microscopy. It briefly describes the operating principles, instrumentation which includes energy dispersive X-ray detectors, spatial resolution, typical use of the techniques, elemental analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... optical emission spectroscopy, high-temperature combustion, and inert gas fusion. This is followed by a section on techniques for determining the atomic structure of crystals, namely X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, and electron diffraction. Types of electron microscopies most commonly used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
.... These methods include light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. atomic force...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
.... The techniques used for performing microanalysis include scanning electron microscopy and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. The article describes surface analysis techniques, including Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and ion-scattering spectroscopy. Bulk analysis techniques...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the operation and capabilities of surface analysis methods of metals, including scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, transmission electron microscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0005693
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... electron microscopy CBED convergent-beam electron diffraction DRS diffuse reflectance spectroscopy EDS energy-dispersive spectroscopy EELS electron energy loss spectroscopy ENAA epithermal neutron activation analysis EPMA electron probe x-ray microanalysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... and three-dimensional contour determination of the surface Atom probe tomography Ellipsometry, mostly used for thin-film thickness measurement The techniques covered in this division are based on probing methods using direct probe contact, electron, ion, photon, thermal, or x-ray interaction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning acoustic microscopy. The article also reviews the X-ray diffraction technique used for determining the compositional changes, strain changes, and residual stress evaluation during the fatigue process. acoustic emission technique atomic force microscopy...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of solidification microstructures in alloys: two-dimensional x-ray topography, two-dimensional x-ray radiography, and ultrafast three-dimensional x-ray tomography. X-Ray Topography X-ray topography is a diffraction-based imaging technique, in principle, the x-ray variant of dark-field microscopy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... scanning electron microscopy topographic contrast X-ray microanalysis THE SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE is one of the most versatile instruments for investigating the microstructure of materials. Under electron bombardment, a variety of different signals is generated (including secondary electrons...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... These include serial sectioning, focused ion beam tomography, atom probe tomography, and X-ray microtomography. Nine case studies are presented that represent the work of the various research groups currently working on 3D microscopy using serial sectioning and illustrate the variants of the basic experimental...
Image
Published: 01 June 2012
Fig. 4 Schematic of the electron beam interaction with the sample for scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer analysis More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... of the electron beam increases, smaller electron probe sizes can be used, and the resolution attainable in the analysis (imaging, electron diffraction, and x-ray microanalysis) increases; that is, the region under analysis decreases. Analytical electron microscopy electron sources are discussed further in Ref 4...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, chromatography, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Test cabinets and standard test environments for laboratory analysis are reviewed. The article describes non-standard simulation testing and case studies of simulated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... The experimental techniques for microstructural characterization include metallographic technique, X-ray diffraction, electron, microscopies, and porosimetry. coating structure electrodeposition electron microscopy metallographic technique microstructural characterization plasma spraying porosimetry...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... analysis, X-ray techniques, and simulations. It also describes the steps for analyzing the data, preparing the report, preservation of evidence, and follow-up on recommendations. background data assembling chemical analysis electron microprobe analysis electron microscopy failure analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006652
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... metallography; RS, Raman spectroscopy; SAXS, small-angle x-ray scattering; SEM, scanning electron microscopy; SIMS, secondary ion mass spectroscopy; TEM, transmission electron microscopy; UV/VIS, ultraviolet/visible absorption spectroscopy; XPS, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; XRD, x-ray diffraction; XRS, x...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... that characterize the elemental composition of the specimen. When x-ray and structural information are combined, a unique description of the specimen emerges. More recent developments in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) include thermal-wave imaging, which is used to detect subsurface defects. Devices are also...