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X-ray inspection

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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 1 (a) X-ray inspection equipment. (b) Digital image of two aluminum castings showing no defects More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 19 Industrial computed tomography system x-ray cell for the inspection of large fabricated components and castings with multiaxis parts manipulator More
Image
Published: 30 June 2023
Fig. 8 Scans show the inspection capability of the x-ray computed tomography method in two additively manufactured parts. (a) Hinge bracket crack and surface irregularities detection. (b) Ace cup rings of porous material in the middle section of thickness via laser powder-bed fusion using More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 6 Probability of detection plots for four different nondestructive evaluation methods on the same set of specimens. (a) Penetrant inspection. (b) Ultrasonic inspection. (c) Eddy current inspection. (d) X-ray inspection More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 7 Actual versus nondestructive testing (NDT) estimated crack length for etched specimens. (a) Penetrant inspection. (b) X-ray inspection More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... TECHNOLOGY ADVANCES IN X-RAY SENSORS have provided opportunities for digital imaging inspection techniques. Real-time radiography has a long history; however, more recent advances in sensing technologies have resulted in two new techniques: computed radiography and digital radiography. Various types...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... and inclusions having measurable thickness in all directions can be also detected as long as they are not too small in relation to section thickness. Fluoroscopic Inspection and Automated Defect Recognition This system has replaced conventional radiography (film x-ray) and consists of an x-ray generator...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of radiation in radiographic inspection, including X-rays and gamma rays. It deals with the characteristics that differentiate neutron radiography from X-ray or gamma-ray radiography. The geometric principles of shadow formation, image conversion, variation of attenuation with test-piece thickness, and many...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... to the inspection of bonded structures, including visual inspection, ultrasonic inspection, X-ray radiography, and neutron radiography. The evaluation and correlation of inspection results are also discussed. The article concludes with information on the effects of ultrasonic wave interference in the ultrasonic...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005346
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... or process specification listed, a method of measuring that characteristic must also be identified. This measurement method can vary from being a very objective method using variable or attribute gaging to being very subjective in the use of methods such as x-ray inspection of castings where the operator...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... trimming Detailed deflashing Shot blast operation Casting quality check (leak test, x-ray, ultrasonic inspection) Operators may perform all, none, or one or two of these steps in the finishing cell. High-Pressure Die Casting Automation Automation in the HPDC application...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006443
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... the brightness of the indication depends not only on the material brightness but also on the quantity of the material present at the defect site. X-ray film and the chemicals required for developing can be controlled in a similar manner. The defect indications are regions of different density in the film...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006967
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... the potential to detect boundaries between materials with sufficiently different x-ray absorption properties in three dimensions, making it a potential candidate for dimensional metrology applications. These have been summarized in Table 1 . X-ray computed tomography is particularly suited to inspection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006974
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... provides a brief summary of traditional NDT tools, with x-ray and CT forming part of radiographic testing. For more details, the reader is referred to reviews of NDT, which can be found in Ref 1 . Because aerospace applications require stringent inspection standards, NDT has been developed and applied...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... diffraction Penetrating rays of x-ray, gamma rays, or neutrons passing through or reflecting from test object cast shadows or patterns on film or digital imaging plates Manufacturing, weld inspection, finding objects in closed containments, metrology of enclosed objects, thickness Hazardous radiation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003462
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... is carried out in the same basic manner as it is for metals, except that prior to the x-ray inspection, a radiopaque penetrant is wetted into the open surface cracks to enhance damage visibility. In general, x-ray equipment operable in the 10 to 50 kV, 5 mA range with diiodobutane penetrant yields the best...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
.... Source: Ref 14 Iovea ( Ref 16 ) used an x-ray source with a mini-focus of 0.8 by 1.2 mm (0.03 by 0.05 in.) spot size with an integrated aluminum filter to eliminate the soft radiation. The radiation beam is screened by a collimator and after passing through the inspected part, is registered...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... force microscopy, and scanning acoustic microscopy. The article also reviews the X-ray diffraction technique used for determining the compositional changes, strain changes, and residual stress evaluation during the fatigue process. acoustic emission technique atomic force microscopy crack growth...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article reviews nondestructive testing (NDT) and inspection techniques, namely liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, ultrasonics, X-ray, eddy current, visual and radiography that are commonly used to detect and evaluate flaws or leaks in an engineering system. This article compares...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... visible for viewing. All of the terms and techniques in the following discussion refer to radiological inspection with penetrating electromagnetic radiation in the form of x-rays or γ-rays. The general principles of radiography, including the equipment used, materials interaction with radiation...