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X-ray imaging systems

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Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 3 Schematic of a typical radioscopic system using an x-ray image intensifier More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... illustration of a typical radioscopic system using an X-ray image intensifier. It discusses the advantages and limitations of real-time radiography. Computed radiography (CR) is one of the radiography techniques that utilizes a reusable detector comprised of photostimuable luminescence (PSL) storage phosphor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... of x-ray topography was realized in 1958 when Lang ( Ref 7 ) developed the projection topography system to image individual dislocations in a silicon crystal in transmission. This marked a milestone in the field of x-ray topography and was partly driven by the availability of high-quality semiconductor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
.... It also provides information on digital radiography, image processing and analysis, dual-energy imaging, and partial angle imaging, of a CT system. computed tomography digital radiography dual-energy imaging film radiography partial angle imaging real-time radiography X-ray computed tomography...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...Abstract Abstract X-ray spectroscopy is generally accepted as the most useful ancillary technique that can be added to any scanning electron microscope (SEM), even to the point of being considered a necessity by most operators. While “stand-alone” x-ray detection systems are used less...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... enlargement, which allows the imaging of small details. Microfocus x-ray systems have found considerable use in the inspection of integrated circuits and other miniature electronic components. Microfocus x-ray systems with specially designed anodes as small as 13 mm (0.5 in.) in diameter and several...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...Abstract Abstract Metal transparency and interaction with X-rays have been recognized as obvious candidate principles from which methods for in situ monitoring of solidification processes could be developed. This article describes the use of X-ray imaging-based techniques to investigate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... enlargement, which allows the imaging of small details (see the section “ Enlargement ” in this article). Microfocus x-ray systems have found considerable use in the inspection of integrated circuits and other miniature electronic components. Microfocus x-ray systems with specially designed anodes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
..., and the images appear three dimensional. In addition, a broad range of magnifications (10 to 30,000×) facilitates the correlation of macro- and microscopic images. The scanning electron microscope also has analytical capabilities. Among the data signals released during examination are x-rays...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... of Wiley. Copyright © International Union of Crystallography). (c) Micro x-ray diffraction Rigaku image plate system with simulated diffraction reflections visible In a MIKROGAP detector, a sealed vessel contains the grid, anode, delay lines, and Xe-CO 2 gas mixture. Incoming x-ray photons produce...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... signals are emitted from the sample under primary electron bombardment, including backscattered and secondary electrons, characteristic and continuous x-rays, and photons of longer wavelength. A variety of signal detectors surrounds the specimen and makes possible the simultaneous recording of images...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... Because the electron beam is scanned synchronously with the CRT, a two-dimensional distribution image is obtained. However, due to the low count rates, x-ray dot maps are rather noisy, and digital recording is more appropriate. In a digital system, the number of x-ray counts is stored for each pixel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
.... Real-time imaging techniques have considerably improved the process and made possible rapid testing and immediate acceptance or rejection of parts. Real-time x-ray systems include image intensifiers or screens that convert x-rays into visible light and discrete detector arrays that convert x-rays...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Backscattered electron imaging of atomic number contrast: ∼1 μm X-ray characterization of elemental chemistry: ∼2 μm using typical beam voltages of ∼20 kV (much better resolution, ∼100 nm, can be obtained using low voltage beams) Electron diffraction characterization of crystal structure and orientation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., an SEM can be designed to enhance particular capabilities. For example, proper choice of the electron source can be used to enhance imaging, while changing the types of x-ray detectors can provide better chemical analysis. Modifying the vacuum system can allow examination of a wide range of sample types...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., neutron radiographic testing, x-ray diffraction Penetrating rays of x-ray, gamma rays, or neutrons passing through or reflecting from test object cast shadows or patterns on film or digital imaging plates Manufacturing, weld inspection, finding objects in closed containments, metrology of enclosed...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... trimming Detailed deflashing Shot blast operation Casting quality check (leak test, x-ray, ultrasonic inspection) Operators may perform all, none, or one or two of these steps in the finishing cell. High-Pressure Die Casting Automation Automation in the HPDC application...
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 38 Laboratory x-ray image of a six-layer copper interconnect structure in an integrated circuit. The smallest features on the chip are about 160 nm in size and are easily resolved by the system with ∼80 nm resolution. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
...), and ρ is the density. Additionally, the linear attenuation coefficient also depends on the energy level of the x-ray beam, because photons with lower energy are more likely to interact with the imaging object. By integrating the full spectrum of the x-ray beam energy into the linear attenuation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
..., electron beam/specimen interactions and the generation of a signal, signal detectors, electron diffraction, imaging, x-ray microanalysis, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and sample preparation. The second section consists of 12 examples, each illustrating a specific type of materials problem that can...