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X-ray imaging

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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Metal transparency and interaction with X-rays have been recognized as obvious candidate principles from which methods for in situ monitoring of solidification processes could be developed. This article describes the use of X-ray imaging-based techniques to investigate interface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... illustration of a typical radioscopic system using an X-ray image intensifier. It discusses the advantages and limitations of real-time radiography. Computed radiography (CR) is one of the radiography techniques that utilizes a reusable detector comprised of photostimuable luminescence (PSL) storage phosphor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract X-ray topography is the general term for a family of x-ray diffraction imaging techniques capable of providing information on the nature and distribution of imperfections. This article provides a detailed account of x-ray topography techniques, providing information on the historical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... sample under primary electron bombardment, including backscattered and secondary electrons, characteristic and continuous x-rays, and photons of longer wavelength. A variety of signal detectors surrounds the specimen and makes possible the simultaneous recording of images that convey structural and...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... diffraction. Rather than imaging materials on the basis of differences in x-ray absorption, as in x-ray radiography, the topographic techniques applied to polycrystals exploit the elastically (diffracted) and inelastically scattered x-rays. This allows diverse structural features, usually associated with the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... M.-I. , Homs-Regojo R.A. , Tran-Caliste T.N. , Carbone D. , Jaques V.L.R. , Grifone R. , Boesecke P. , Katzer J. , Costina I. , Djazouli H. , Schroeder T. , and Schülli T.U. , Imaging of Strain and Lattice Orientation by Quick Scanning X-Ray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., for images displayed in Fig. 2 and 3 . We also thank Ryan Haase of Materials Evaluation and Engineering, Inc. for review and comments on the contents. Detectors that characterize x-rays based on their energy are the most widely used type of detector for x-ray spectroscopy. Two basic systems are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... borides. Quantitative compositional mapping can be performed on x-ray spectrum image databases, resulting in elemental images in which the gray or color scale is related to elemental concentration. The x-ray microanalyst needs to be aware of the principles of x-ray generation, x-ray propagation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006639
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... microelectronics. XPS is perhaps most advantageous in the analysis of polymers because the bonds in polymers can be resolved, particularly for failure analysis, evaluation of production issues, and overall characterization. With advancements in x-ray sources, cluster guns, and imaging capabilities, XPS is useful...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... using a point detector, but to reduce the time of data collection, area detectors are preferable for single-crystal diffractometers, among which several varieties exist. An image plate is a modern reusable analog of a photographic plate. X-rays produce a latent image on a plate that is then excited by...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... goniometer head, and aligned to the center of the four-circle goniometer. Nowadays, the data-collection process is fully computerized. The raw data are composed of more than a thousand diffraction images recorded by an x-ray area detector, for example, the charge-coupled device area detector used in most...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) techniques are used to characterize samples in the form of loose powders, aggregates of finely divided material or polycrystalline specimens. This article provides a detailed account of XRPD. It begins with a discussion on XRPD instrumentation and the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Vol 2455, Cordell T. and Rempt R. , Ed., 1995 , p 125 – 132 55. Anderson E. , Hartney M. , and Weisfield R. , Amorphous Silicon Imaging System for Improved X-Ray Image Capture in Nondestructive Evaluation , Process Control and Sensors for Manufacturing , SPIE Vol...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... radiation in radiographic inspection, including X-rays and gamma rays. It deals with the characteristics that differentiate neutron radiography from X-ray or gamma-ray radiography. The geometric principles of shadow formation, image conversion, variation of attenuation with test-piece thickness, and many...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... 3-D Reconstruction , J. Microsc. , Vol 204 (Part 1) , Oct 2001 , p 17 – 28 10.1046/j.1365-2818.2001.00920.x 15. Hein L.R.O. , Silva F.A. , Nazar A.M.M. , and Ammann J.J. , Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Fracture Surfaces: Area Matching Algorithms for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... 74. Hillebrecht F.U. , Magnetic Imaging , J. Phys.: Cond. Matt., Vol 13 , 2001 , p 11163 – 11180 10.1088/0953-8984/13/49/305 75. Fischer P. et al. , Study of In-Plane Magnetic Domains with Magnetic Transmission X-Ray Microscopy , J. Appl. Phys., Vol 89 , 2001 , p...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... provides information on the dimension-measurement applications of ultrasonic inspection methods. ultrasonic imaging inspection area-amplitude blocks distance-amplitude blocks calibration defects WHEN ULTRASONIC NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING (NDT) was first applied, it was a workmanship standard and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... Chemical analysis is carried out by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and plasma-emission spectrophotometry. Phase analysis is done by X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic methods, thermal analysis, and quantitative analysis. Techniques used for microstructural analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... also provides information on digital radiography, image processing and analysis, dual-energy imaging, and partial angle imaging, of a CT system. computed tomography digital radiography dual-energy imaging film radiography partial angle imaging real-time radiography X-ray computed tomography...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... pattern showing the effect of milling time on the peak broadening on milled iron powder ( Ref 8 ). X-ray diffraction: Provides bulk crystallographic information Optical microscopy: Faster, less expensive, and provides superior image quality on relatively flat samples at less than 300 to 400...