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X-ray films

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Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 1 Characteristic curves for x-ray film that determine type of film and film gradient, speed, and density. (a) Typical curves for three industrial x-ray films exposed to x-radiation between lead screens. (b) Evaluation of gradients at two points on the curve for film A in (a). (c) Density More
Image
Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 8 Schematic cross section of a typical x-ray film More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 33 Schematic cross section of a typical x-ray film. Dimensions given in inches More
Image
Published: 01 January 1986
Fig. 9 Schematic of a thin film diffractometer. A, line source of x-rays; B, axial divergence of soller slit; C, glancing angle; D, sample; E, equatorial divergence soller slit; F, detector More
Image
Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 20 Experimental curve of film unsharpness, U f , against x-ray energy (filtered sources). Source: Ref 31 More
Image
Published: 15 December 2019
Fig. 11 Schematic of a thin-film diffractometer. A, line source of x-rays; B, axial divergence of Soller slit; C, glancing angle; D, sample; E, equatorial divergence Soller slit; F, detector More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 25 Experimental curve of film unsharpness, U f , against x-ray energy (filtered sources). Source: Ref 2 More
Image
Published: 15 December 2019
Fig. 12 Schematic diagrams of the white-beam diffraction pattern recorded in (a) transmission geometry and (b) back-reflection geometry. (c) Actual transmission x-ray diffraction pattern recorded from an (0001) AlN single crystal on an SR-45 20.3 by 25.4 cm (8 by10 in.) x-ray film More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... other factors that govern the exposure and processing of a neutron radiograph are similar to those for radiography using X-rays or gamma rays. gamma-ray radiography image conversion neutron radiography shadow formation X-ray films X-ray production X-ray radiography RADIOGRAPHY...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... or technique of producing images of a solid material on a paper/photographic film or on a fluorescent screen by means of radiation—particles (neutrons) or electromagnetic waves of short wavelength (x-rays and γ-rays). The image/photograph so produced is called a radiograph. In this section, the radiography...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... sections radiographic film processing THE TERM RADIOGRAPHY often refers to the specific radiological method that produces an image on film (conventional radiography) or digitally using detection systems that fluoresce once exposed to penetrating radiation (with x-rays or γ-rays). This article...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... a diffraction pattern. The diffraction pattern is recorded on film or using detector techniques, then analyzed to provide x-ray powder data. In XRPD analysis, samples usually exist as finely divided powder (usually less than 44 μm in size) or can be reduced to powder form. The particles in a sample comprise...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... of performance characteristics for film radiography, real-time radiography, and X-ray computed tomography is presented in a table. A functional block diagram of a typical computed tomography system is provided. The article discusses CT scanning geometry that is used to acquire the necessary transmission data...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... diffracted beam is projected onto a high-resolution x-ray film or detector ( Fig. 1a ). The two-dimensional diffraction spot thus obtained constitutes an x-ray topograph ( Fig. 1b ), and it precisely displays the variation of the diffracted intensity as a function of position, depending on the local...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... for photographic film is the image plate (IP) storage phosphor ( Ref 8 ), which uses a phosphor (i.e., BaBrF doped with europium) that, when irradiated by x-rays, stores the x-ray signal until it is read by a laser scanner. Advantages of the IP detector include: It is an order of magnitude faster than...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003710
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... metallurgy and the surface oxide films, including the protective passive film, can be accomplished by the use of various surface sensitive analytical techniques. These techniques include energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), wavelength dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (WDS), Auger electron spectroscopy...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
.... The small amount of characteristic radiation generated usually does not interfere with the experiment. Detection of X-Rays Use of x-rays in experiments necessitates detection of diffracted beams such that their positions in space and intensities are measurable. Photographic films and photon detectors...
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 6 Latitude curves for the radiographic inspection of steel at film densities ranging from 1.5 to 3.0. (a) Effect of tube voltage on latitude of a type 2 radiographic film. (b) Effect of film type on latitude for radiography using 250 kV x-rays. Curves were prepared from data obtained More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Abstract This article provides a detailed account of the principles, instrumentation,and applications of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), a technique used for elemental and compositional analysis of surfaces and thin films. It reviews the nomenclature of energy states and sensitivity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... spectroscopy coatings ion scattering spectroscopy Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy secondary ion mass spectroscopy surface analysis thin films X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy SURFACE AND INTERFACE ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES have been among the paramount characterization methods since the beginning...