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X-ray equipment

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... historically been conducted using two types of equipment: the Debye-Scherrer camera and the x-ray diffractometer. The Debye-Scherrer camera is used for powdered samples ( Fig. 6 ). The camera is a light-tight hollow cylinder with a removable cover plate. The powdered sample is placed in a hollow capillary tube...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
.... This information, in conjunction with knowledge of normal occupancy, is used to evaluate the effectiveness of shielding and to determine maximum duty cycles for x-ray equipment. To guard against the inadvertent leakage of large amounts of radiation from a shielded work area, interlocks and alarms are often...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... summarizes the theory of XRD analysis and describes advances in equipment capability. measurement depth selection measurement location selection measurement validation residual-stress analysis sample selection specimen preparation X-ray diffraction X-RAY DIFFRACTION (XRD) residual-stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses various concepts of micro x-ray diffraction (XRD) used for the examination of materials in situ. The discussion covers the principles, equipment used, sample preparation procedure, considerations for calibrating a detector, steps for performing data...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001749
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... alpha and beta-particle emission, positron emission, and gamma and x-ray emission. It compares and contrasts measurement techniques based on various detectors, namely, charged-particle detectors, photon detectors, counting and recording instruments, and radioactive decay spectrometers. It also addresses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... Scanning electron microscopy offers possibilities for image formation that are usually easy to interpret and will reveal clear pictures of as-polished and etched cross sections as well as rough surfaces and particles. Energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis using equipment routinely attached to the scanning...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... microscopes are equipped with an energy dispersive x-ray detector. The operation and characteristics of EDS detectors are described in the section on x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy in the article “Bulk Elemental Analysis.” This detector and the associated electronics provide a histogram of the x-ray...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract The overall chemical composition of metals and alloys is most commonly determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and optical emission spectroscopy (OES), and combustion and inert gas fusion analysis. This article provides information on the capabilities, uses, detection threshold...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... focal spots, large values of geometric magnification can be used effectively. Values of 6 to 20 are common; magnification values as high as 100 can be used. Focal spots in microfocal x-ray equipment range from 5 to 20 μm (0.0002 to 0.0008 in.). In addition to increased image size, magnification systems...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract This article reviews nondestructive testing (NDT) and inspection techniques, namely liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, ultrasonics, X-ray, eddy current, visual and radiography that are commonly used to detect and evaluate flaws or leaks in an engineering system. This article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... of material, such as dislocation images, small angle boundary distribution, and vacancy clusters. Superior resolution, but requires thin samples Comparison summary of scanning electron beam instruments equipped with secondary electron and x-ray detectors Table 2 Comparison summary of scanning...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
...Abstract Abstract X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) techniques are used to characterize samples in the form of loose powders or aggregates of finely divided material that readily diffract x-rays in specified patterns. This article provides an introduction to XRPD, beginning with a review...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...-ray diffraction analyses have historically been conducted using two types of equipment: either with cameras or with x-ray diffractometers, as described in other sections of this article. A pinhole camera ( Fig. 1 , 2 ) with photographic film is the oldest method of detecting x-rays. It was first used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...-ray beam hosting all equipment needed for a particular x-ray application ( Fig. 2 ). At a diffraction beamline, typical x-ray optics include a monochromator and a few x-ray mirrors ( Fig. 4 ). The monochromator, usually made of silicon or germanium crystals, selects a very narrow band of energy (Δ E...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... orbital and cause it to be ejected from the atom, the high end of the spectrum is limited by the energy of the incident electron/photon, while the low end is limited by the detection equipment. Energy-Dispersive Spectrometers Detectors that characterize x-rays based on their energy are the most...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... trimming Detailed deflashing Shot blast operation Casting quality check (leak test, x-ray, ultrasonic inspection) Operators may perform all, none, or one or two of these steps in the finishing cell. High-Pressure Die Casting Automation Automation in the HPDC application...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... complementary. The ideal x-ray microanalytical instrument is equipped with both energy-dispersive and wavelength-dispersive systems. However, if resources permit the acquisition of only one spectrometer for the electron beam column, the choice must be made carefully and be based upon the nature of the problems...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... image becomes visible for viewing. All of the terms and techniques in the following discussion refer to radiological inspection with penetrating electromagnetic radiation in the form of x-rays or γ-rays. The general principles of radiography, including the equipment used, materials interaction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005716
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
.... Most scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) are equipped with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy tools to provide compositional information. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy is commonly used to qualitatively or semi-quantitatively evaluate the diffusion of elements that has taken place following...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... characteristic x-rays, all elements of the periodic table can be measured. Generally referred to as electron probe microanalysis, the technique is typically performed in an SEM equipped with an energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDS). The SEM-EDS is capable of quantitative measurements of constituents...