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X-ray diffractometer

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Debye-Scherrer camera and the X-ray diffractometer. The article also describes the uses of XRD analyses, such as the identification of phases or compounds in metals and ceramics; detection of order and disorder transformation; determination of lattice parameters and changes in lattice parameters due to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... The article ends with a few application examples of XRPD. X-ray powder diffraction diffractometers X-RAY POWDER DIFFRACTION (XRPD) techniques are used to characterize samples in the form of loose powders, aggregates of finely divided material or...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... optics, a laser-guided microscope camera system for picking the analysis spot(s), a stage compatible with the sample type, and a detector, usually 1-D or 2-D, although scintillation detectors still are uncommonly used. Micro x-ray diffraction as a technique saw a decline in use as diffractometers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... viscous liquids (e.g., motor or Vaseline oil), which will not crystallize at low temperatures. Then the crystalline sample should be placed for data collection into a single-crystal x-ray diffractometer. Today there are several world-leading manufacturers of such equipment, which have distinct...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... the tube. This fraction of x-rays is too divergent to be directly used for any diffraction measurements. Laboratory diffractometers have presample slits or optics to trim and collimate the radiation, which significantly reduces the flux of photons on the sample. Synchrotron x-rays, on the other hand...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... positioning precision of ±0.05 mm (±0.002 in.). The alignment of the diffractometers was established and checked using alloy or base metal powder incapable of supporting macroscopic residual stress, in accordance with ASTM E 915 (Ref 14). Revised from P.S. Prevey, X-Ray Diffraction...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... crystals or polycrystalline materials ( Ref 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 ). The single most useful instrument for phase identification or quantitative analysis of mixtures of phases, however, is the x-ray powder diffractometer. It provides for rapid acquisition of data useful for a number of purposes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006643
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... world. Fig. 13 Single-crystal diffractometer. (a) Euler and (b) kappa geometries X-ray topography is a unique application of single-crystal analysis. It essentially is x-ray diffraction radiography in which a large area of a single crystal produces a single diffracted beam that creates a 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001298
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... stress measurements. The Ω-and Ψ-diffractometers are defined on the basis of the sample axis for ψ tilt perpendicular or parallel to the plane of the incident and detected x-ray beam, respectively. A Ψ-diffractometer gives symmetric irradiated areas in −ψ and +ψ tilted angles at a given ( hkl...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... as by instrumental factors. A typical diffractometer will have an angular resolution of approximately 0.01°, which means that line broadening can be observed if the grain size D is lower than approximately 1 μm (40 μin.). This is easily achievable by various coating techniques, and x-ray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... for better quantification. For example, the percentage of retained austenite present at the surface of material can be measured by x-ray diffraction on the same diffractometer used for residual stress measurements. Reference 47 describes measurements of both residual stress and percentage of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... structure form-factor measurements to be tracked. The crystal orientation, or face indexing, may also be determined by a laboratory single-crystal x-ray diffractometer before a neutron experiment. For powder neutron diffraction, sample sizes depend significantly on the instrument as well as on sample...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... preference for some orientation can be beneficial. Two aspects of the microstructure are significant: the preferred orientation and the size of the columnar grains. The preferred orientation of a film can be ascertained using a standard x-ray diffractometer by comparing a θ-2θ scan to one from a powder...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005418
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
...-wavelength diffractometer, the principle is still the same, with the sample being rotated through every symmetric angle. The ODF is then reconstructed as for lab x-ray measurements but without the problem of ghosts. A more direct method is electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Here, the Kikuchi lines...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...; AES, Auger electron spectroscopy; EPMA, electron probe x-ray microanalysis; FTIR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; IA, image analysis; IC, ion chromatography; ICP-AES, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy; IR, infrared spectroscopy; LEISS, low-energy ion-scattering...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... by x-ray diffraction. The accuracy using a diffractometer is in the region of 0.5% for the range 1.5 to 38% of austenite by volume ( Ref 18 ). Fig. 33 Volume fraction of retained austenite in carbon steels fully austenitized and water quenched in water or brine at room temperature. Source...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005424
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... confidence in the fidelity of simulation. This is true both when new methods are under development and when new applications emerge. Experiments involving in situ loading of specimens in facilities capable of x-ray and neutron diffraction measurements provide data at the scale of crystals. Elastic (lattice...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003052
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005950
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... phenomena involved. Simulation results were commonly confirmed by microstructural analysis, hardness tests, and dimensional and x-ray diffraction (XRD) residual stress measurements. Although some results (such as prediction of temperature history, hardness distributions, and volume changes) were promising...