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X-ray diffraction

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract X-ray diffraction (XRD) residual-stress analysis is an essential tool for failure analysis. This article focuses primarily on what the analyst should know about applying XRD residual-stress measurement techniques to failure analysis. Discussions are extended to the description of ways...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article provides a detailed account of the concepts of single-crystal x-ray diffraction (XRD). It begins with a historical review of XRD methods, followed by a description of the various factors involved in crystal symmetry. The article then focuses on the phase problem in x-ray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article discusses various concepts of micro x-ray diffraction (XRD) used for the examination of materials in situ. The discussion covers the principles, equipment used, sample preparation procedure, considerations for calibrating a detector, steps for performing data analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article provides a detailed account of x-ray diffraction (XRD) residual-stress techniques. It begins by describing the principles of XRD stress measurement, followed by a discussion on the most common methods of XRD residual-stress measurement. Some of the procedures required...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article discusses the techniques and applications of synchrotron x-ray diffraction, providing information on x-ray generation, monochromation, and crystallography. X-ray diffraction techniques covered include single-crystal and powder diffraction. Some of the factors involved...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article focuses primarily on what an analyst should know about applying X-ray diffraction (XRD) residual stress measurement techniques to failure analysis. Discussions are extended to the description of ways in which XRD can be applied to the characterization of residual stresses...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract X-ray diffraction (XRD) is the most extensively used method for identifying and characterizing various aspects of metals related to the arrangements and spacings of their atoms for bulk structural analysis. XRD techniques are also applicable to ceramics, geologic materials, and most...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Abstract The primary goal of single-crystal x-ray diffraction is to determine crystal structure and the arrangement of atoms in a unit cell. This article discusses the diffraction of light through line gratings and explains the significance of crystal symmetry, space groups, and diffraction...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Abstract In x-ray diffraction residual stress measurement, the strain in the crystal lattice is measured, and the residual stress producing the strain is calculated, assuming a linear elastic distortion of the crystal lattice. This article provides a detailed account of the plane stress elastic...
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Published: 15 December 2019
Fig. 1 Principles of x-ray diffraction residual-stress measurement. D, x-ray detector; S, x-ray source; N , normal to the surface. (a) Ψ = 0: Poisson’s ratio contraction of lattice spacing. (b) Ψ > 0: Tensile extension of lattice planes by stress σ More
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Published: 15 December 2019
Fig. 7 Illustration of the diffraction cones in powder x-ray diffraction and the geometry of a point-detector setup More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 8 Effect of surface R a on x-ray diffraction stress measurements. (a) X-ray penetration depth is greater than R a . (b) X-ray penetration depth is less than R a . Source: Ref 35 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) techniques are used to characterize samples in the form of loose powders, aggregates of finely divided material or polycrystalline specimens. This article provides a detailed account of XRPD. It begins with a discussion on XRPD instrumentation...
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Published: 01 January 1986
Fig. 1 Principles of x-ray diffraction stress measurement. (a)ψ = 0. (b)ψ = ψ (sample rotated through some known angle ψ). D, x-ray detector; S, x-ray source; N, normal to the surface More
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Published: 01 January 1986
Fig. 4 Basic geometry of the single-angle technique for x-ray diffraction residual stress measurement. N p , normal to the lattice planes; N s , normal to the surface. See text for a discussion of other symbols. Source: Ref 2 More
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Published: 01 January 1986
Fig. 2 The total x-ray diffraction pattern for silica glass. I t is the total diffracted intensity; I b is the background intensity; and s = 4π sinθ/λ. The ordinate is multiplied by a factor of 1, 3, and 9 in the three sets of curves. More
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Published: 01 October 2014
Fig. 7 Retained austenite, measured by x-ray diffraction, as a function of distance from the surface of an 8620 steel carburized at 925 °C (1700 °F). The single and double reheats were accomplished by heating to 845 and 790 °C (1550 and 1450 °F), respectively. Source: Ref 18 More
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Published: 01 June 2016
Fig. 5 X-ray diffraction pattern of various nitrided alloys. Source: Ref 11 More
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Published: 01 October 2014
Fig. 3 X-ray diffraction patterns of untreated and plasma-nitrided (PN) AISI 316 steel showing two broad peaks, S1 and S2, generated from low-temperature nitrided layer. Source: Ref 4 More
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Published: 01 October 2014
Fig. 4 X-ray diffraction patterns of nitrogen and carbon S-phase in comparison with untreated AISI 316 stainless steel. PC, plasma carburized; PN, plasma nitrided. Source: Ref 4 More