1-20 of 346 Search Results for

X-ray diffraction

Follow your search
Access your saved searches in your account

Would you like to receive an alert when new items match your search?
Close Modal
Sort by
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract X-ray diffraction (XRD) residual-stress analysis is an essential tool for failure analysis. This article focuses primarily on what the analyst should know about applying XRD residual-stress measurement techniques to failure analysis. Discussions are extended to the description of ways...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article provides a detailed account of the concepts of single-crystal x-ray diffraction (XRD). It begins with a historical review of XRD methods, followed by a description of the various factors involved in crystal symmetry. The article then focuses on the phase problem in x-ray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article discusses various concepts of micro x-ray diffraction (XRD) used for the examination of materials in situ. The discussion covers the principles, equipment used, sample preparation procedure, considerations for calibrating a detector, steps for performing data analysis, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article provides a detailed account of x-ray diffraction (XRD) residual-stress techniques. It begins by describing the principles of XRD stress measurement, followed by a discussion on the most common methods of XRD residual-stress measurement. Some of the procedures required for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article discusses the techniques and applications of synchrotron x-ray diffraction, providing information on x-ray generation, monochromation, and crystallography. X-ray diffraction techniques covered include single-crystal and powder diffraction. Some of the factors involved in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the incoming x-rays that are incident upon the crystal is changed in a serial manner, and as the crystal sweeps through the entire range, x-rays are diffracted into a detector in accordance with Bragg’s law: (Eq 2) n λ = 2 d sinθ where n is an integer (usually 1), λ is the wavelength of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... 17 . However, because of the difficulties in determining the extent of retained austenite using light microscopy and standard metallographic techniques, particularly when the quantity involved is small, it is usual to determine this by x-ray diffraction. The accuracy using a diffractometer is in the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis are used for ascertaining the mechanical and physical properties of polymers, determining decomposition products can lead to verification of the original material. In analysis of crystalline materials, especially ceramics or minerals, x-ray diffraction (XRD) can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... magnetic material Not suitable for nonmagnetic material Online monitoring; can sense stress without cracking Magnetic metals, steel, nickel, iron, chrome Radiography, computed tomography, digital x-ray, neutron radiographic testing, x-ray diffraction Penetrating rays of x-ray, gamma rays, or...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... spectroscopy X-ray diffraction and advanced techniques (such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman and Auger spectroscopy) Subsurface regions (cross sections) Optical microscopy Microhardness profiles Advanced techniques Collected wear particles Visual inspection Scanning electron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... corrosion process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) provides chemical composition information for crystalline phases in the corrosion deposit. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy is elemental analysis, as opposed to the quantitative composition analysis provided by XRD. The technique is used to analyze a well...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...  Microscopic Chemical and microstructural analysis  Macrochemistry (“wet” chemical analysis)  Spectrographic analysis  X-ray diffraction  Electron beam microprobe analysis Step 4: Perform destructive tests Metallographic (light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... lines of evidence can be integrated into the diagnosis of MIC. Fig. 11 Holistic approach for sample and data collection in the identification of microbiologically influenced corrosion in a field corrosion site. XRD, x-ray diffraction; EDX, energy-dispersive x-ray analysis; ATP, adenosine...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... part are different than they were prior to the failure, and the presence or absence of residual stress is not obvious in any case. Methods for measurement and study of residual stress include hole drilling, x-ray diffraction, and neutron diffraction techniques (e.g., see the articles “Residual Stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., Cartesian, polar, or spherical. For defining stress components, the labels may be given in Cartesian coordinates where the mutually perpendicular axes are labeled x , y , and z . Keeping the stresses defined the same as previously, σ for normal stress and τ for shear stress, the nine stress components...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... , Adv. X-Ray Anal. , Vol 52 , 2008 , p 336 – 343 110. Guo Y.B. , Warren A.W. , and Hashimoto F. , The Basic Relationships between Residual Stress, White Layer, and Fatigue Life of Hard Turned and Ground Surfaces in Rolling Contact , J. Manuf. Sci. Technol. , Vol 2 ( No. 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...% accuracy with a precision of 0.1 wt%. Additional details on x-ray analysis can be found in the article “X-Ray Spectroscopy in Failure Analysis” in this Volume. Additional signals that can be monitored in an SEM are the specimen current and the electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) pattern. Similar...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-damaged fractures, unless the surfaces have been exposed to corrosive environments. Foreign matter, if present, is in trace amounts only, unless the fracture surfaces had been exposed to contaminants. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy allows the determination of the elements on the fracture surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2