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X-ray diffraction

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...Abstract Abstract X-ray diffraction (XRD) residual-stress analysis is an essential tool for failure analysis. This article focuses primarily on what the analyst should know about applying XRD residual-stress measurement techniques to failure analysis. Discussions are extended to the description...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...Abstract Abstract This article provides a detailed account of the concepts of single-crystal x-ray diffraction (XRD). It begins with a historical review of XRD methods, followed by a description of the various factors involved in crystal symmetry. The article then focuses on the phase problem...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses various concepts of micro x-ray diffraction (XRD) used for the examination of materials in situ. The discussion covers the principles, equipment used, sample preparation procedure, considerations for calibrating a detector, steps for performing data...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...Abstract Abstract This article provides a detailed account of x-ray diffraction (XRD) residual-stress techniques. It begins by describing the principles of XRD stress measurement, followed by a discussion on the most common methods of XRD residual-stress measurement. Some of the procedures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the techniques and applications of synchrotron x-ray diffraction, providing information on x-ray generation, monochromation, and crystallography. X-ray diffraction techniques covered include single-crystal and powder diffraction. Some of the factors...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article focuses primarily on what an analyst should know about applying X-ray diffraction (XRD) residual stress measurement techniques to failure analysis. Discussions are extended to the description of ways in which XRD can be applied to the characterization of residual...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract X-ray diffraction (XRD) is the most extensively used method for identifying and characterizing various aspects of metals related to the arrangements and spacings of their atoms for bulk structural analysis. XRD techniques are also applicable to ceramics, geologic materials...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
...Abstract Abstract The primary goal of single-crystal x-ray diffraction is to determine crystal structure and the arrangement of atoms in a unit cell. This article discusses the diffraction of light through line gratings and explains the significance of crystal symmetry, space groups...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
...Abstract Abstract In x-ray diffraction residual stress measurement, the strain in the crystal lattice is measured, and the residual stress producing the strain is calculated, assuming a linear elastic distortion of the crystal lattice. This article provides a detailed account of the plane...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...Abstract Abstract X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) techniques are used to characterize samples in the form of loose powders, aggregates of finely divided material or polycrystalline specimens. This article provides a detailed account of XRPD. It begins with a discussion on XRPD instrumentation...
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Published: 01 November 2010
Fig. 14 Residual stresses in the tool axis direction. X-ray diffraction measurements; Ti 6-4 sample 90° orientation. Values less than zero indicate compressive residual stress and values greater than zero indicate tensile residual stress. More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 6 Theta 2-theta x-ray diffraction scan for polycrystalline aluminum. CPS, counts per second. Courtesy of M.G. Norton More
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Published: 01 January 1993
Fig. 18 X-ray diffraction trace of fusion zone in Ti-6Al-4V sheet welded using a tantalum shim, showing peaks that identify hexagonal structures More
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Published: 01 January 1994
Fig. 7 Measured x-ray diffraction pattern for sputter ion plated titanium nitride. Vertical lines represent data peak positions for titanium nitride from Fig. 6 . Film shows a [111] preferred orientation. C/s, counts per second More
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Published: 01 January 1994
Fig. 4 Measurement and analysis of surface damage using x-ray diffraction. (a) 38 mm (1.5 in.) 1018 steel cutoff sample showing burn-related discoloration. Two residual stress measurements by x-ray diffraction were made on the sample at the locations marked by the four concentric markers. (b More
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Published: 01 January 1986
Fig. 1 Principles of x-ray diffraction stress measurement. (a)ψ = 0. (b)ψ = ψ (sample rotated through some known angle ψ). D, x-ray detector; S, x-ray source; N, normal to the surface More
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Published: 01 January 1986
Fig. 4 Basic geometry of the single-angle technique for x-ray diffraction residual stress measurement. N p , normal to the lattice planes; N s , normal to the surface. See text for a discussion of other symbols. Source: Ref 2 More
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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 15 X-ray diffraction results on pure magnesium and magnesium-nickel alloys showing the transition with increasing nickel from magnesium to magnesium plus Mg 2 Ni and then to an amorphous structure. Source: Ref 119 More
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Published: 30 September 2015
Fig. 9 X-ray diffraction peaks of milled iron showing a change in the line shape and shift in the peak position as a function of milling time. Source: Ref 8 More
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Published: 30 September 2015
Fig. 9 X-ray diffraction analysis of titanium MMC manufactured using ADMA More